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Traditional medicine knowledge

Traditional medicine knowledge

Article PubMed PubMed Supreme Google Scholar Qamar AH. Preliminary medicune surveys indicate Traditionla there are Traditional medicine knowledge of angiosperms in this area, and the main timber species include Cunninghamia lanceolata, Pinus massonianaand Phoebe zhennan [ 22 ]. As shown in Table 2the F statistic is The text of an international legal instrument for the effective protection of TK is, therefore, in flux and new drafts continue to become available on a regular basis. Traditional medicine knowledge

Traditional medicine knowledge -

Similar results have been shown in Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Autonomous Prefecture, where many medicinal species belong to these families [ 40 ]. Although these 19 families accounted for Nineteen prevalent botanical families with most species numbers used in Shui traditional medicine.

Generally, the medicinal plant resources of the Shui ethnic group in Sandu County have three distinct characteristics:.

Rich diversity: The findings highlight that the diverse natural environment of Sandu Shui Autonomous County provides local inhabitants with abundant natural resources.

These medicinal plants not only help with disease prevention and treatment, but they provide a source of economic livelihood for locals. The rich biodiversity of this region can be credited to the forest protection and environmental traditions that the Shui people have developed and passed down through generations.

While preserving forests and ecological environments, the Shui have fostered a symbiotic and mutually supportive relationship. The prosperity of the village is believed to be significantly impacted by the state of the Dragon Mountain, necessitating special protection measures, such as the prohibition of plant poaching and deforestation.

Numerous forest protection and appreciation practices are also integrated into the Shui people's significant life-cycle ceremonies.

When a baby boy is born in a Shui family, his father is obliged to plant a tree for the newborn and carefully tend to it, thereby symbolizing the child's growth and development.

Even if these trees die or branches fall, their use for timber is strictly forbidden. The Shui people's proactive forest protection customs have effectively conserved local forest resources, paving the way for sustainable development in the region. According to Shui healers, in the past, farmers from the Jiujian Township could obtain several thousand pounds of Eucommia ulmoides bark each time they collected in the mountains unpublished results.

After a thorough investigation, we observed the most commonly distributed medicinal plants included Lonicera japonica , Ligustrum japonicum , and Houttuynia cordata. Furthermore, each year during the Dragon Boat Festival, the Sandu county seat and its townships maintain a tradition of organizing a medicinal market, where vendors line both sides of the streets, creating a lively and bustling event.

The Shui Dragon Boat Festival herbal market has played a significant role in the flourishing of the Chinese herbal medicine market in Sandu Shui Autonomous County. Consequently, a substantial volume of herbal medicine is sold in Sandu annually, establishing it as one of the primary export products of the Sandu Shui Autonomous County.

The herbal medicine industry in Sandu shows great potential for further growth and development. Extensive cultivation: In order to make them more easily accessible for personal use, common medicinal plants, such as Celosia cristata, Isodon amethystoides , and Asarum insigne , have been cultivated around houses and on farmland for immediate use.

In addition, some Shui people also grow edible wild plants with medicinal properties, like Pteridium aquilinum , Houttuynia cordata , and Capsella bursa-pastori s. The cultivation of these plants does not require time-consuming management or pesticide application, allowing them to retain their authentic flavor.

This practice can be viewed as a transition from humans wildcrafting plants in their natural habitat to engaging in cultivation. Additionally, there is also commercial production through cultivation.

At present, as farmers and the local government recognize the medicinal and economic value of Shui medicinal plants, Sandu County has initiated large-scale cultivation of medicinal plants such as Eucommia ulmoides , Gastrodia elata , and Mahonia fortunei. This approach has transformed medicinal plant resources into an economic powerhouse for the region, ensuring a steady supply of medicinal materials for businesses and providing an excellent income-generating opportunity for the local community.

The efficacy of medicinal plants is closely related to the plant part used since different parts of the same plant may have different uses and effectiveness [ 49 ]. The Shui informants at the study sites used multiple parts of medicinal plants, including the root, whole plant, leaf, stem, bark, fruit, seed, flower, and tuber.

Among them, the whole plants were the most popularly used group in terms of species number species , accounting for Using the whole plants as medicine is common practice in many ethnic medicines, and traditional doctors believe that this method can enhance the efficacy of the medicine [ 50 , 51 ].

Although this collection method can cause damage to the local medicinal plant resources and harm biodiversity conservation, it is worth noting that some villagers have taken to cultivating commonly used medicinal plants in their home gardens as an alternative.

Furthermore, the county government has taken steps in recent years to initiate reforestation efforts and has implemented administrative measures to safeguard medicinal plant resources [ 52 ]. As a result, the issue of destructive collection and excavation has begun to be somewhat alleviated.

In all, traditional medicine prescriptions were collected through interviews with local healers and included nine types of treatments: decoction ; external application 34 ; medicinal liquor 36 ; oral soup , and exterior washing The Shui people use fresh medicinal plants frequently, while dry plants are seldom used.

This is because the Shui believe the active ingredients of fresh plants are still intact so that this method can optimize effectiveness. However, our investigations found that most plants traded at the market were dried.

Local herbal medicine vendors explained that these dried medicinal materials were more convenient for storage. In addition, dried plant materials also were considered to have improved taste and odor, so they are more palatable.

Medicinal liquor, for the prevention and treatment of diseases, is one of the oldest traditional dosage forms in the history of Chinese medicine. These liquors have been widely used in both folk and medicinal industries from ancient times to the present day [ 53 , 54 , 55 ]. Shui people prepare alcoholic beverages, known in Chinese as jiuqian-jiu , which are made from rice and special starter made of wild plants known as jiuqu [ 56 , 57 ].

This dosage form has antiseptic and antitoxic properties, which can delay hydrolysis and enhance the stability of many medicines [ 58 ]. There are 36 medicinal plant species used for both medicine and Jiuqian liquor starters Table 6.

For example, Lygodium japonicum is used to treat urinary tract infections, hepatitis, nephritis edema, and diarrhea, while the Miao people stew it with meat to strengthen their constitution [ 40 ].

Melastoma dodecandrum is used traditionally for expelling wind-damp. A few species are used for both food and medicine, such as Imperata cylindrica and Rosa roxburghii.

Although Shui medicine is based on the principles of male progenitor lineage, women are primarily responsible for brewing Jiuqian-jiu. The Shui believe that medicinal plants should be harvested around the Dragon Boat Festival to achieve the best curative effect. Therefore, on the morning of the Dragon Boat Festival, the experienced elder female team leader from a village leads other women up the mountains to harvest and clean the medicinal herbs.

The team leader then turns the collected herbs into medicinal liquor, which is not easy to prepare, usually taking at least 3 months for fermentation.

After the medicinal liquor has been cured, the team leader distributes it to each household, and the women mix it with steamed glutinous rice. After further fermentation, the sweet and nutritious Jiuqian - jiu is ready to drink.

All villages in the Shui region participate in alcohol brewing. Sweet rice wine cooked with eggs is a vital source of nourishment for women during their postpartum period.

In some villages, there is a tradition of sealing a bottle of freshly brewed alcohol upon a baby's birth, only to be unsealed when the child gets married or passes away, thereby serving as a way to honor ancestors and entertain guests. The most renowned liquor is Jiuqian wine, which has earned a reputation as a widely celebrated specialty.

In addition to medicinal liquor, the Shui often use their secret recipes for healing. Finally, the broken limb is washed with a decoction of Sambucus williamsii , Dichondra micrantha , Rhus chinensis , Ficus tikoua , Sargentodoxa cuneata , and Heptapleurum heptaphyllum.

This traditional medical practice involves the use of a number of species instead of a single herb, a common practice of Shui healers. Although there are various forms of traditional medicine used by the Shui people, including soaking the plants in water to treat ailments like colds, coughs, diarrhea, and hemoptysis, or soaking them in alcohol to treat injuries and rheumatism, as well as using water or alcohol for external application to treat snake bites, insect bites, fractures, and cuts, there are not many other formulations, like ointments, pills, or powders.

During treatment, patients are typically asked about their symptoms, but there are no standardized measurements or preparation methods. Thus, Shui traditional medicine is still at the early stage of experience-based treatment, awaiting a transition from empirical to theoretical knowledge, and the elevation of experience to theory.

Shui medicinal plants are used to treat 85 human ailments [ 59 ]. The most prevalent ailments treated with documented medicinal plants are rheumatic diseases 78, Disease incidence is often closely related to the local environment and climate, as well as ethnic activities and lifestyles [ 41 ].

According to the survey, Sandu had the largest number of healers who could effectively treat rheumatic disease, and this may be because Sandu is located in the Moon and the Leigong Mountains. This area is mountainous, with dense forests, high temperatures, rainy weather, wind, cold, and damp heat, and these climatic conditions are conducive to developing rheumatism.

From the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, those who live in damp areas should expel wind from their body regularly to relieve constipation and improve their sleep quality, thereby improving their health [ 60 ].

Thus, due to their unique environment, Shui people have identified many herbs to treat rheumatism. Moreover, herbs to treat fractures comprise a large proportion of Shui traditional medicines Fig. Bone fractures are an occupational hazard for local people engaged in agriculture and forestry. For example, a Shui healer may treat bone fractures with poultices prepared from fresh flowers and bark of Albizia julibrissin , Prunella vulgaris , and Gonostegia hirta.

Also, a chicken's internal organs are removed and the chicken is filled with freshly macerated Reineckea carnea for external application to a fractured bone. During interviews with a Shui healer in Dahe Township, we learned that this method was used to successfully treat over 20 patients with bone fractures, with highly effective outcomes.

The RFC relative frequency of citation was adopted to evaluate important plant species used by local healers to treat various diseases. From the prescriptions investigated, the number of prescriptions mentioning plant species FC used ranged from 1 to The RFC values calculated for these 12 medicinal plant species ranged from 0.

The medicinal plants with higher RFC values included Isodon amethystoides , Asarum insigne , and Acorus tatarinowii.

The high RFC values in this study highlight the local healers and residents have a strong dependence on these 12 species of medicinal plants Table 7. The higher the RFC value, the more familiar the local healers are with the species. Furthermore, and of great importance, these species were either highly effective or abundant and easy to obtain locally.

Because of their popularity in Shui medicine, all of these plants should be further studied, focusing on their chemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity, as well as evaluation of the efficacy and safety of local medicinal plants.

For example, Isodon amethystoides is widespread throughout Sandu County and is well known among the Shui people for its medicinal properties.

Local traditional Shui healers use the whole plant or root to treat the cancer, autoimmune diseases, and other difficult-to-cure diseases. With the trend of using naturally occurring substances, drugs from plants have become increasingly important alternative medicines worldwide [ 62 , 63 ].

Isodon amethystoides deserves further study for drug development. Asarum insigne , a common substitute for Asarum heterotropoides, has significant pharmacological action, strong therapeutic effects, and easily sourced. In Sandu, it is widely used for the treatment of windchill pain, toothache, broken bones, snake bites, acute gastroenteritis, bacillary dysentery, windchill cough, windchill cold, chronic bronchitis, asthma, and chronic gastritis.

Recent experiments have shown that the whole plant of Asarum insigne contains various amino acids and inorganic elements, and has anti-aging, blood pressure- and lipid-lowering effects [ 64 ].

Some researchers have processed it to make it more palatable, with a slightly floral aroma [ 65 ]. It is believed that through the application of state-of-the-art instruments such as high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the effective pharmacological active components of Asarum insigne can be elucidated and it has the potential to be developed into an externally applied medicine.

Acorus tatarinowii is also an important Chinese medicinal material, which is used in the clinical treatment of forgetfulness, tinnitus, deafness, rheumatism, and pain [ 66 ]. The growth cycle of Acorus tatarinowii is typically 3—4 years, and its regeneration rate is slow after excessive harvesting.

Thus, Acorus tatarinowii resources are in short supply because of the destruction of its natural environment, and thus the price of wildcrafted Acorus plants has been increasing in recent years. Wild Acorus tatarinowii resources are mainly found in remote mountains, and harvesting has become more difficult since young Shui men have been abandoning rural villages for better jobs in urban areas Table 4.

Harvesting wild Acorus is mainly left to some older farmers, and this increases the labor cost, resulting in more expensive Acorus tatarinowii, especially compared with other medicinal herbs.

The Shui people have various customs in their daily life that are closely related to their health. As a substitute for tea, the Shui people often drink Ligustrum japonicum , which has the beneficial effects of clearing heat and detoxifying the body. Additionally, Pseudognaphalium affine , a popular wild vegetable for Shui people, has the property of relieving coughs and reducing phlegm Table 5.

However, this plant is believed to have medicinal properties that nourish yin and strengthen yang , invigorate qi and blood in the Shui community Table 5. Glutinous rice cultivation has a long history among Shui communities, who have developed many methods of processing it.

One of their favorite delicacies is a steamed cake made by mixing Paederia foetida with glutinous rice. To prepare this dish, glutinous rice is soaked in water for 3—4 h, while the freshly picked Paederia foetida leaves are cleaned, chopped and the juice is extracted through a cheesecloth.

The extracted juice is then mixed with glutinous rice powder. A pot of water is brought to boil and sugar is added until it dissolves. The water with sugar is then poured into the glutinous rice and Paederia foetida juice mixture, stirring until evenly distributed.

A steaming dish is greased and the mixture is poured in, then steamed in layers until fully cooked. The result is a tasty and fragrant Paederia foetida glutinous rice cake that is considered beneficial to health.

Adding glutinous rice and sugar not only eliminates the odor of Paederia foetida , but also imparts a pleasant fragrance to the dish. The Shui people weave their own clothing and traditionally dye it blue using indigo, Strobilanthes cusia.

Even today, those living in rural areas continue to favor indigo-dyed clothes. The Shui often engage in outdoor labor, frequently scratching their hands and feet, so wearing indigo clothes may help to prevent wound infections and alleviate skin itching Table 5.

The Sandu region boasts abundant medicinal plant resources, and the Shui people have a long-standing tradition of utilizing these plants to treat various ailments in their daily lives. In this study, we analyzed the data collected from 15 healers and another informants who used fresh or dried herbal medicinal material of plant species to treat a wide spectrum of illnesses and diseases, which belong to genera from families, with Fabaceae being the highest represented plant family.

Most of the Shui medicinal plants are herbaceous, and healers most commonly use the whole plants in their treatments. Of the 85 different diseases treated by these medicinal plants, a significant number were to treat rheumatism and bone fractures, which may correlate with the local living and environmental conditions.

The local people commonly used three medicinal plant species: Isodon amethystoides , Asarum insigne , and Acorus tatarinowii. Further studies on their chemistry, biological activity, and toxicity are needed for potentially developing new pharmaceutical products.

Based on field investigations, this study has comprehensively collected, organized, analyzed, evaluated, and summarized the medicinal plant resources and associated traditional knowledge developed and utilized by the Shui people. The results provide strong scientific evidence for the future development, utilization, and protection of Shui medicine.

However, it is important to acknowledge that traditional medicinal knowledge and medicinal plants face great threats from rapid urbanization. For instance, Jiuqian Town had the highest per capita distribution of healers Pch , only one local healer was in Zhonghe Township. Of the 15 local healers surveyed in this study, only two were younger than 40 years old.

Men and older healers with less education possess most of the knowledge regarding herbal remedies. Meanwhile, most younger people prefer to look for jobs in urban areas instead of studying traditional medicinal knowledge in the countryside. Thus, there is an urgent need to implement policies and practices for the conservation of medicinal plants and their associated traditional knowledge.

This will ensure that this valuable knowledge is not lost to future generations. Pei SJ. Overview of medicinal plants and its conservation in China.

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The number of medicinal plant species reported from the Sulaiman area is less than reported by other studies, which typically report between 50 and medicinal plant species for comparable sites [ 35 , 37 , 42 ]. This may have several reasons.

Animal products, especially the use of goat and sheep skin, are of utmost importance for local treatments. Furthermore, a substantial part of the remedies is apotropaic and, in this case, often made from minerals or other products.

In the Himalayan foothills of Southwest China, a similar situation was found with local healers—among the Shuhi people—who mainly work with ritual plants and their medicinal plant knowledge is relatively scarce compared to other regions [ 64 ].

In the Sulaiman area, health prevention through gathered wild food is also important and may be a reason for relatively little medicinal plant knowledge [ 31 ]. The numbers of species reported as ethnoveterinary [ 28 ] and edible plant species [ 31 ] were also less as compared to other areas.

All of the documented medicinal plant species are reported from other areas of Pakistan with similar or different uses [ 30 , 36 , 37 , 40 , 41 , 65 , 66 ]. Same was the case for ethnoveterinary medicinal plants [ 28 ], whereas one-third species of the wild edibles were also newly reported from the study area [ 31 ], which shows the uniqueness of the Sulaiman area and its culture.

About half of all use reports were from only 6 plant families, i. The relative importance of Pinaceae is due to two Pinus species P. gerardiana and P. wallichiana which are broadly used in the area not only for medicinal but also for ethnoveterinary medication and food purposes [ 28 , 31 ].

The extent of similarity of these results with the prevalence of the families in the local vegetation is unknown, as a checklist of the flora of the Sulaiman Mountains is unavailable. There are different medicinal and ritual specialists, but no local herbalists in the area.

This coupled with the predominant use of fresh plants, animals and minerals for medicinal purposes indicates that the traditional healing system consists of a combination of knowledge from different systems including biomedicine. A negative impact of syncretism between traditional and biomedicine is that local people tend to use pharmaceuticals like pain killers carelessly since they are unaware of possible side effects and proper dosage.

These concepts are unknown to their traditional medicine. The local use of pharmaceuticals based on traditional concepts of plant medicine and related problems have also been described and discussed for two Amazonian societies [ 57 ].

Medicinal plant knowledge has some variations between villages Fig. While age-wise knowledge difference Fig. The commonality of medicinal plant knowledge was relatively more prevalent than the ethnoveterinary species [ 28 ] and wild edibles [ 31 ].

Local medicinal plant use is still dynamic. Some medicinal plants are used less recently while others are newly integrated into the materia medica.

Plant medicine might be abandoned due to lack of efficiency, problems of availability, or cheap pharmaceutical alternatives. For example, there was a decrease in the use of Phlomoides spectabilis leaves against human skin allergy. Newly integrated species are Valeriana jatamansi against diarrhea, ca.

Key informants claimed that the extensive use of few medicinal plants like Teucrium stocksianum, Ephedra gerardiana and Withania coagulans Table 6 —compared to available pharmaceuticals—is due to their efficacy.

Plants with high fidelity levels e. are reported in literature with adverse effects [ 38 , 68 , 69 ]. Therefore, official pharmacopeias must be consulted before using such plants or its parts. Extensive use of goat and sheep skin for medicinal treatment Table 4 to our knowledge has not been reported in the ethnomedical literature of Pakistan yet.

These uses are not restricted to the present research area but are typically found among Pashtun tribes in Pakistan and Afghanistan personal discussion with residents of different areas including people of Afghanistan and Pashtun tribes of Pakistan. These uses of materia medica are transmitted as oral histories.

One of the reasons why the Sulaiman Markhor Capra falconeri appears as threatened species on the IUCN Red List is its high demand for medicinal purposes e. Its horns are used for decoration, and both skin and horns fetch high prices in the market.

Sustainable conservation strategy in the form of ecotourism and applying other conservation tools, by involving local communities—as they are familiar with vegetation, habitat and associated wildlife, needs to be devised in the area [ 43 ].

Interestingly, no medicinal plant trade is found in the research area. Some species like fruits of Withania coagulance and seeds of Pegnum harmalla are commonly marketed in Pakistan, even in the surrounding communities of the research area, but their prices are unenticing.

Other plants like Berberis calliobotrys, Ephedra gerardiana and Velariana jatamansi have a high market demand and catch good prices [ 44 ], but locals were unaware about these commercial values.

Sustainable harvesting of such plants could help to improve local livelihoods [ 70 ]. Above half of the present ethnomedicinal plant species were commonly available Table 5 , and leaves were the most used parts Fig. The priority must be given to the rarely available species with higher URs and FL Table 5 - 6 , because frequent uses decrease its availability.

The ethnomedicinal knowledge in the area was also facing degradation- although not very high, which negatively affects the lives and culture of these societies. The present paper based on interactions with local informants investigates the traditional medicinal knowledge and materia medica of remote tribal communities in west Pakistan.

A variety of medical substances from plants, animals and minerals are used to treat diseases, depending on the severity of the disease and availability of the substance.

Treatment often happens in the family context. But different types of medical and ritual specialists are consulted if necessary, especially in the case of unusual diseases and illnesses caused by spirits. The local medicinal system is dynamic as it not only includes and integrates new medicinal plants but also pharmaceuticals.

However, most important is the use of goat and sheep skin which forms a central pillar for healing. The use and practices mentioned during present study needs detailed pharmaceutical evaluation before its recommendation for general use.

The widely used materia medica with rare availability needs conservation priority. Similarly, the local cultural norms are the means of matria medica practices which must be preserved. While the area faces some acculturation processes, traditional practices remain quite intact.

From a developmental perspective, reinforcement of local institutional contexts would be important to strengthen local knowledge and related sustainable practices.

The datasets generated and analyzed during the current study are not publicly available due to the easy identification of included participants.

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Nasir E, Ali S. Flora of West Pakistan. Department of Botany. Karachi, Pakistan: University of Karachi, Fakhri printing press; Ali SI, Qaisar M. The term itself has no agreed international legal definition WIPO, It may apply to traditional medicines as such, or to knowledge systems relating to medical treatment such as healing massage or yoga postures.

Traditional medicine systems can be categorized as follows: The past decade has seen greater attention paid to traditional medical knowledge in several international policy contexts.

The high prevalence of traditional medicines throughout the world, coupled with efforts to integrate traditional medicines in modern national health systems, has increased the demand for information on the safety, efficacy and quality of these medicines.

The regulation of traditional medicines takes many different forms around the world. Depending on the national legislative and regulatory framework, they can be sold as prescription or non- prescription medicines, dietary supplements, health foods or functional foods. Additionally, the regulatory status of a particular product may differ in different countries.

The same herbal product can be considered differently if it is traded between two countries which have different regulatory approaches and requirements. Herbal products which are categorized as something other than medicines and foods are becoming increasingly popular, and there is potential for adverse reactions due to lack of regulation, weaker quality control systems and loose distribution channels including mail order and Internet sales WHO, a.

In , the International Regulatory Cooperation for Herbal Medicines IRCH , a global network of regulatory authorities responsible for the regulation of herbal medicines which operates in conjunction with the WHO, was established. Its mission is to protect and promote public health and safety through improved regulation of herbal medicines.

Currently, over WHO member states regulate herbal medicines. To support the efforts of member states in establishing and implementing effective regulation of herbal medicines, the WHO has published key global technical guidelines, in terms of their quality, safety and efficacy and sustainable use.

Several other sets of guidelines are in development, including guidelines on the assessment of herbal medicines, the methodology for research and evaluation of traditional medicine, good manufacturing practices GMPs for herbal medicines as well as conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants, such as good agricultural and collection practices GACP for medicinal plants.

In addition, the WHO has developed a series of volumes of WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants, which aim to provide scientific information on the safety, efficacy and quality control of widely used medicinal plants.

The WHO provides models to assist member states in developing their own monographs or formularies for these and other herbal medicines, and it also facilitates information exchange among member states.

Growth in international trade in traditional medical products has sparked discussions on the trade impact of regulations.

In recent years, WTO members have notified the WTO Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade TBT Committee in relation to a range of regulations that have a direct bearing on traditional herbal medicines.

Such regulations include: GMPs for the production of herbal remedies Mexico ; regulation of herbal medicines for the protection of public health Peru ; inspection of herbal medicines for the protection of consumers and the promotion of public health Republic of Korea ; and regulations on the preparation of herbal medicine for human consumption Kenya.

Research is continuing on traditional medicines and traditional medical knowledge in various different areas, each generating a multitude of policy issues:. The use of genetic resources GR and associated TK is primarily regulated by the Convention on Biological Diversity CBD and the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity Nagoya Protocol.

National biodiversity policies frequently reference traditional medicines and medical research. The essential effect of the CBD and the Nagoya Protocol is to confirm national sovereignty over GR and to establish a right of prior informed consent PIC , approval and involvement, over the access to, and use of, associated TK.

Many of the issues highlighted in this debate concern genetic materials used as the basis for medical research, and traditional medical knowledge that is either used directly to produce new products or is used as a lead in researching new treatments.

The Commission on Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation and Public Health CIPIH has called for benefits derived from TK to be shared with the respective communities WHO, b. How to apply PIC and equitable benefit sharing EBS has sparked a wide-ranging debate.

Concerns about improving patent examination in the TK area, in order to avoid erroneous patents on traditional medicines in particular, have led to initiatives at international and national levels.

A leading example is the Traditional Knowledge Digital Library TKDL , a collaborative project in India between the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research CSIR , the Ministry of Science and Technology, and the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.

An interdisciplinary team of Indian medicine experts, patent examiners, information technology experts, scientists and technical officers have created a digitized system enabling consultation of existing literature in the public domain relating to Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha and Yoga.

Such literature is generally available in traditional languages and formats. The TKDL therefore provides information on traditional medical knowledge in five international languages and formats which are understandable by patent examiners at international patent offices.

The aim is to prevent the grant of erroneous patents, 21 while at the same time not newly publishing TK in a way that would facilitate its misappropriation.

The WHO GSPA-PHI urges governments and concerned communities to facilitate access to traditional medicinal knowledge information for use as prior art 22 in the patent examination procedures, where appropriate, through the inclusion of such information in digital libraries Element 5.

The WTO TRIPS Council has discussed how to preclude erroneous patents using GRs and associated TK through the use of databases. This included a submission by Japan that had been previously submitted to the WIPO Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore IGC.

Parties to the CBD, WIPO and the WTO have considered the concept of a disclosure requirement in the patent system, put forward by its proponents as a means of ensuring that patents on inventions derived from TK and GR are consonant with the principles of PIC and EBS.

The Traditional medicine knowledge of traditional Ttaditional to new generations of traditional medicinal practitioners Traditional medicine knowledge place Traditional medicine knowledge place-based intergenerational learning processes, which are increasingly challenged by Supreme rural—urban migrations and Traditional medicine knowledge biodiversity loss. Traditionak on Senior athlete nutrition Supreme knowledge TMK mediicine mainly focused on Traditiona, medicinal properties of different plant species while social, medicins, and locational aspects of TMK learning processes have received less attention. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the research field by examining how the learning processes of TMK are affected by on-going socio-spatial transformations in rural and urban parts of the Eastern Lake Victoria region. Urbanization and migration are transforming the learning processes of TMK and affect the ways traditional practitioners are able to transfer TMK to a new generation of practitioners. Based on in-depth interviews, participant observations and focus group discussions with male and female traditional practitioners aged between 30 and 95 from rural and urban settings in Mwanza Tanzania and Nyanza Kenya in the Eastern Lake Victoria Region. BMC Complementary Medicine Supreme Therapies volume 21 Traditional medicine knowledge, Article number: Cite konwledge article. Metrics Tradotional. Little is known about the kknowledge Traditional medicine knowledge and practices of tribes in the western border areas of Pakistan. The local population has inhabited this remote and isolated area for centuries, and gained medicinal knowledge with personal experiences and knowledge learned from forefathers. Due to the geographical isolation of the communities in the Sulaiman hills of Pakistan and their unique culture, the area is of importance for exploration and assessment.

Author: Makus

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