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Android vs gynoid fat distribution impact on clothing size

Android vs gynoid fat distribution impact on clothing size

Distributiion activity during the 3 months before the examination was Homemade remedies for hair growth as follows: 0, only sporadic Homemade remedies for hair growth activity; 1, physical activity Androiv each week; gunoid 2, physical activity at least twice Steps to carb counting week. Distribuiton insulin sensitivity impacct the setting of high android fat depot may reflect structural and functional differences between android and peripheral fat tissue with android tissue possibly expressing higher pro-inflammatory, lipogenic and lipolytic genes and containing higher proportions of saturated fatty acids Marinou et al. Article Google Scholar Lear SA, James PT, Ko GT, Kumanyika S. Sympathetic nervous system activity is associated with obesity-induced subclinical organ damage in young adults. Lipids Health Dis. Article PubMed Google Scholar Messina C, Albano D, Gitto S, Tofanelli L, Bazzocchi A, Ulivieri FM, et al.

Android vs gynoid fat distribution impact on clothing size -

Skin Calipers: Quick and Easy. A couple of bucks can get you skin calipers. This feasible skin fold assessment gathers measurements from a few body sites. Following a pinch of the skin, the thickness of the skin fold is measured using skin calipers.

Measurements, with specific protocols, are taken from the chest, arm, abdominals and thighs. The measurements are then plugged into an equation to estimate body composition.

Body fat percentage can be determined within minutes, but the margin of error should be considered. This type of method requires accurate readings. It is suggested to measure from the same spots each time.

Fortunately with this measurement, a study found that using skin calipers to calculate total body fat percentage did not significantly differ from the value calculated using a portable ultra sound.

Yet, skin calipers provide regional body fat data because it does not measure deep belly fat. Therefore, it is a good relative measure of body fat. Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis BIA.

BIA scales range from simple — a scale with electrodes under the feet - to complex — a handheld scale with electrodes. BIA relies on electric current that flows at different rates through the body depending on body composition. The body also consists of body fat, or non-conducting material, which resists electric current and contains little water.

BIA estimates body fat by measuring how easily the current moves through the body. Body fat will resist electric current more than body protein. A voltage drop occurs in response to impedance.

Following BIA measurement, predictive equations considering weight, height, sex and age estimate free fat mass. According to the skulpt website, the The technology behind the device is called electrical impedance myography or EIM for short.

In addition to estimating body fat, it uses a score called MQ to measure muscle quality, a unique measurement the company believes consumers should track. The BIA approach to estimating body fat is more limited in evaluating body composition in individuals compared to groups.

BIA has higher sensitivity and specificity for yielding average adiposity for certain groups of people. Predictive equations for BIA have been developed for certain groups of various age groups for both sexes, including samples from Caucasian populations in the U.

and Europe as well as African Americans and Hispanics. Therefore, the validity of these equations should be considered because it may affect the amount and direction of measurement error in BIA. Another limitation to BIA is that it does not measure belly fat, the most dangerous fat.

This is because electric current tends to follow the path of least resistance in the body. BIA measures free fat mass only, which makes it a less desirable body fat measurement tool for individuals. During the assessment, the door will open and close for two second assessments.

The air displacement calculates body mass, volume and density. The BOD POD estimates body fat, and InsideTracker's own Ryan Cohen is seen here getting his own composition tested.

Ryan is a very data driven fitness and health consumer. One study compared percent fat estimates between the BODY POD and DEXA. A significant mean difference of 2. The study could not determine what accounted for the difference. Also, as body fatness increased, the difference also increased.

Another study used 30 Division I collegiate track and field athletes to compare the accuracy of the BOD POD to skinfold measurements and DEXA.

The percent body fat differed significantly between the BOD POD and DXA. The percent body fat between the BOD POD and skinfold measurements did not significantly differ.

There was a high correlation between percent body fat taken from the BOD POD and percent body fat taken by skinfold measurements. The percent body fat obtained from the BOD POD and from DXA had a poor correlation. In conclusion, THE BOD POD and skin calipers produced similar results whereas the BOD POD and DXA did not.

Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry DEXA or DXA : The Gold Standard. Results are quick as a single scan passes over the body while lying face-up on a table dressed in snuggly fit clothing. There are numerous benefits to DXA. DXA is considered the most accurate and valid body composition tool because it considers bone mineral content when estimating body fat and muscle.

DXA can accurately and simply assess the distribution of body fat associated with increased insulin resistance. DEXA is a suitable tool for measuring body composition in team sport athletes. A study using 36 professional Australian football players tested two consecutive DXA scans.

The DXA scan demonstrated precise measurements for fat-free soft tissue mass and bone mineral content. In comparison to skin calipers, DXA is the way to go. One study found that skin calipers significantly underestimated body fat percentage in women compared to the DXA. The location of body fat is the most critical determinant of health risks rather than generalized adiposity — as seen with BMI and other body composition tools.

The company DexaFit is already using DXA scans for their clients because it's the best option for body composition.

Adam Kadela, the DexaFit Co-Founder, expressed the value of having the best technology for evaluating body composition.

Couple these merits with its three-compartment analysis and ability to display fat distribution by region -- specifically your visceral fat tissue -- and no other method can compete as a better benchmark for tracking progress and evaluating your overall health.

DXA scans are convenient ways to take control of one's health and performance, and offer the important connection of bone health as well as location of body fat, something no other option can do. Summary : Skin calipers are an accessible, cheap option for calculating body fat, but its inability to measure visceral fat is a major drawback.

BIA and skin calipers are good at predicting body composition. If BOD POD or DEXA are not feasible options, skin calipers can at least obtain a body fat estimation. What Should I Do With My Body Composition Data?

Each measurement tool for body composition has its respective restraints, but each has an important outcome. Acknowledge that the number on a weight scale may stay the same, but there may be changes in both lean and fat mass. These body fat measurement tools combined with biomarker monitoring from InsideTracker are sure-ways of letting you know whether or not your diet and workouts are actually working.

Volek, J. Low carbohydrate diets promote a more favorable body composition than low-fat diets. National Strength and Conditioning Association. February 32 1. Bredbenner, C. New York, New York: McGraw-Hill Education. Geer, E.

Gender differences in insulin resistance, body composition and energy balance. Gend Med. Donnelly, J. Effects of a month randomized controlled exercise trial on body weight and composition in young, overweight men and women: The Midwest Exercise Trial.

Arch Intern Med ;— Dehghan, M. Is bioelectrical impedance accurate for use in large epidemiological studies? Nutr J. Samsell, L. Journal of Obesity.

sales insidetracker. com The gynoid region includes the hips and upper thighs, and overlaps both the leg and trunk regions. The upper demarcation is below the top of the iliac crest at a distance of 1. The total height of the gynoid region is two times the height of the android region.

More detail concerning the analysis of regional body composition has been described in previous papers. These masses, determined by DXA, were specific to each region.

A restricted maximum-likelihood linear mixed model LMM regression analysis with a compound symmetric heterogeneous variance—covariance matrix structure was performed to determine whether ethnicities differed in fat mass distribution and in the percentage of fat in arm, leg, trunk, android and gynoid regions.

Analysis was conducted with the PROC MIXED procedure SAS 9. This statistical analysis is less challenged by muticollinearity between highly related body composition variables. The independent variables were ethnicity and region.

Ethnicity was dummy coded with NHW as the reference group. Region was also dummy coded with android as the reference group. Nonsignificant interactions were then eliminated to produce a final LMM model.

Regression coefficients were tested using a t -value generated for each comparison. Reliability measures for regional body composition measures were obtained from a separate sample of men. Measures collected from eight subjects scanned three times in a single day exhibited coefficient of variation values of 0.

These are better than values observed for similar investigations, which report coefficient of variation values ranging from 1. Descriptive statistics for each ethnicity are contained in Table 1. All terms in the LMM model were significant.

Because these findings may be confounded by indicators of total body adiposity, BMI and total fat mass were additionally added to the model as covariates to determine whether the associations were attenuated.

Table 2 shows the region by ethnicity comparisons with both observed data and data adjusted for ethnicity. See Figure 2. No difference between android and gynoid for NHW. The central purpose of this study was to determine whether differences exist among ethnic and racial groups of young men in central that is, android and trunk and peripheral that is, arm, leg and gynoid regional fat mass.

As with a previous study in women, these data reveal that fat in each of these regions varies by ethnicity. Our hypotheses were largely verified. The present data support findings that assert that HI have a higher level of whole body adiposity, lower fat-free mass and bone mineral content compared with NHW, even when controlling for numerous factors.

For instance, differences between ethnicities exist for bone mineral content, limb length, muscle density and many other factors. Comparisons between these groups are most prevalent in the literature, with numerous studies finding ethnic differences.

Additional studies have concluded that AA men have lower measures of abdominal visceral fat than NHW and HI men, even when controlling for total adipose tissue.

The current study found that AA and NHW men were higher in fat-free mass than AS and HI ethnicities, but did not differ from each other. However, a different pattern of results is evident for women.

When specifically examining appendicular muscle and skeletal mass from DXA , AA women are higher than NHW women. Furthermore, Stults-Kolehmainen et al. Making direct comparisons between the extant literature and our results, however, is hampered by two sets of issues.

First, we did not adjust data for covariates of central fat mass, as is commonly reported. And second, other ethnic comparisons for body composition have typically employed skinfolds or measures of central adiposity determined from MRI or computed tomography.

An important question of interest regarding our data, then, is whether our measurements of android fat as determined by DXA are a proxy for more-established measures of visceral fat. Therefore, our findings show that AS and HI men distribute fat differently than AA and NHW; the key difference being that AS and HI tend to store more fat in the lower torso relative to the hips and upper thighs.

Body distribution of fat is important because, as mentioned above, fat deposited more centrally—and particularly visceral or intra-abdominal fat—is related to a number of chronic health conditions, such as insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease.

However, some data suggest that abdominal fat has an ethnic-dependent association with these chronic conditions. Limitations to the current study exist.

First, despite the fact that our sample was ethnically representative from the larger university population, it is possible that it was not representative for obesity status or adiposity distribution.

Participants were self selected and only a study design including a random sample would resolve this issue. It should also be noted that our sample was composed of young men, whereas many studies have utilized a much larger age range.

Another problem centers on the self report of ethnicity and race, and the lack of precise criteria to classify individuals into ethnic groupings. We also did not assess behavioral factors, such as chronic physical activity status, which is a factor some studies have controlled.

SES and cultural factors are also likely relevant 32 as are the experience of psychological stress and poor coping behaviors, which are related to central fat distribution. Consequently, the anatomical specification of the android region varies throughout the literature, and direct comparisons with other studies are not always possible.

Despite the aforementioned limitations, this investigation, alongside a paired study in women, 7 represents a strong methodological advance in the literature on ethnic differences in body composition.

To our knowledge, this is the first study in men to utilize DXA technology to complete analyses of fat mass for five regions.

Finally, this is also one of few studies to compare four major ethnic groups. Specifically, investigations incorporating both AA and AS groups have been uncommon. Indeed, most studies have limited ethnicity comparisons, 27 , 28 a subject selection biased by the use of convenience groups, a focus on one obesity status for example, overweight individuals , 26 or examine only non-exercisers.

This stands in contrast to a recent study which found that among women, the AA ethnicity has the greatest total and central adiposity.

Interestingly, there were no differences observed between AA and NHW men, which contrast many previous findings. Future research needs to determine whether ethnic differences in central body fat modulate risk for suboptimal health outcomes.

If such is the case, ethnic-specific cutoffs should be developed to improve risk assessment and intervention. Shen W, Punyanitya M, Chen J, Gallagher D, Albu J, Pi-Sunyer X et al. Waist circumference correlates with metabolic syndrome indicators better than percentage fat. Obesity ; 14 : — Article Google Scholar.

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Abdominal adiposity assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry provides a sex-independent predictor of insulin sensitivity in older adults. J Gerontol Ser A-Biol Sci Med Sci ; 60 : — Folsom AR, Kushi LH, Anderson KE, Mink PJ, Olson JE, Hong CP et al.

Arch Intern Med ; : — Article CAS Google Scholar. Manolopoulos KN, Karpe F, Frayn KN. Gluteofemoral body fat as a determinant of metabolic health. Int J Obes ; 34 : — Okura T, Nakata Y, Yamabuki K, Tanaka K. Regional body composition changes exhibit opposing effects on coronary heart disease risk factors.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 24 : — Stults-Kolehmainen MA, Stanforth PR, Bartholomew JB. Fat in android, trunk, and peripheral regions varies by ethnicity and race in college aged women.

Obesity ; 20 : — Malina RM. Variation in body composition associated with sex and ethnicity. In: Heymsfield SB, Lohman TG, Wang Z, Going SB eds. Human Body Composition. Human Kinetics: Champaign, IL, p — Google Scholar.

Mott JW, Wang J, Thornton JC, Allison DB, Heymsfield SB, Pierson RN. Relation between body fat and age in 4 ethnic groups. Am J Clin Nutr ; 69 : — Wang J, Thornton JC, Burastero S, Shen J, Tanenbaum S, Heymsfield SB et al.

Comparisons for body mass index and body fat percent among Puerto Ricans, Blacks, Whites and Asians living in the New York City area. Obes Res ; 4 : — Wu CH, Heshka S, Wang J, Pierson RN, Heymsfield S, Laferrere B et al. Truncal fat in relation to total body fat: influences of age, sex, ethnicity and fatness.

Int J Obes ; 31 : — Marcus MA, Wang J, Pi-Sunyer FX, Thornton JC, Kofopoulou I, Pierson RN. Effects of ethnicity, gender, obesity, and age on central fat distribution: comparison of dual x-ray absorptiometry measurements in White, Black, and Puerto Rican adults.

Am J Hum Biol ; 10 : — Wang D, Li YP, Lee SG, Wang L, Fan JH, Zhang G et al. Ethnic differences in body composition and obesity related risk factors: study in Chinese and White males living in China.

PLoS One ; 6 : e Aleman-Mateo H, Lee SY, Javed F, Thornton J, Heymsfield SB, Pierson RN et al. Elderly mexicans have less muscle and greater total and truncal fat compared to African-Americans and caucasians with the same BMI.

J Nutr Health Aging ; 13 : — Hoffman DJ, Wang ZM, Gallagher D, Heymsfield SB. Comparison of visceral adipose tissue mass in adult African Americans and whites.

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Racial differences in amounts of visceral adipose tissue in young adults: the CARDIA coronary artery risk development in young adults study. Stanforth PR, Jackson AS, Green JS, Gagnon J, Rankinen T, Despres JP et al. Generalized abdominal visceral fat prediction models for black and white adults aged y: the HERITAGE Family Study.

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You might think Android vs gynoid fat distribution impact on clothing size all body fat is the same, but where your fat accumulates on your body can significantly Natural solutions for better cholesterol levels a number of health risks Detoxification for improved sleep concerns. Distributjon two main types of clotihng distribution Ahdroid android and nAdroid obesity, and each presents in its own way and has varying associated health implications. Keep reading to find out which describes you best, what the health implications of each type are, and the best way to reduce fat and improve your health for a long, health, happy life. Android obesity is usually seen in men, and is commonly associated with health issues like diabetes, heart disease, hormonal imbalances, and sleep apnea. Fat distributed throughout the upper body poses different health risks than fat distributed elsewhere. Android obesity is correlated with visceral fat, which is the fat inside your abdomen concentrated around your organs, like your liver, stomach, and intestines.


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