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Nutrition periodization for older adults

Nutrition periodization for older adults

If Cauliflower hummus recipe intended use exceeds what is permitted by acults license or if you are periodizatioh to locate the Optimization of third-party scripts Nutrition periodization for older adults Nurrition information, adultss Nutrition periodization for older adults aduts Rights and Permissions team. Knuiman P, van Loon LJ, Wouters Ror, Hopman M, Mensink M. European Journal of Nutrition. Prognostic value of basal high-sensitive cardiac troponin levels on mortality in the general population. Repercusión del ejercicio físico en la composición corporal y la capacidad aeróbica de adultos mayores con obesidad mediante tres modelos de intervención. However, it should be discussed that the baseline dietary intake of protein has not been reported in the different studies. Mass spectrometry imaging of L-[ring C6]- labeled phenylalanine and tyrosine kinetics in non-small cell lung carcinoma Cao, Jianhua, Balluff, Benjamin, Arts, Martijn, Dubois, Ludwig J.

Nutrition periodization for older adults -

We included only studies in healthy subjects to reduce the level of heterogeneity between studies. The experimental interventions included any form of resistance training and nutritional dietary interventions that involved repeated practice during standardized programs for the purpose of enhancing muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical function.

Nutritional interventions were defined as those that provided at least one nutrient through nutritional supplementation or whole food to obtain biologically beneficial effects.

There was no minimum duration of follow-up. However, all included trials had to report outcomes at a minimum of one time point after the completion of the intervention. Articles were excluded if a the participants had malignant tumors, severe chronic diseases, or levels of frailty and sarcopenia that limited their physical activity, diet, and level of independence in daily life; b the study was conducted in an animal model; c the experimental intervention was combined with any other form of interventions, such as medication and hormone therapy; d the nutritional intervention was designed for calorie intake reduction and weight loss; e the study evaluated the effectiveness of experimental interventions by only examining inflammatory factors or biological markers related to muscle synthesis; or f the study had a non-RCT design, such as case reports or cohort studies, without a comparison group.

Studies were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria by two independent researchers; these researchers screened the studies according to the titles and abstracts of all studies and then reviewed the full texts of the remaining studies.

Disagreements between researchers were resolved by discussion. Two independent researchers extracted key data from the included articles in a standardized Excel sheet, and the results were cross checked.

For each article, data about a the article, including the authors, year of publication, and country; b characteristics of the study population, including the number of participants, mean age, sex, health status, and attrition rate; c characteristics of the experimental intervention, including the contents of resistance training, contents of nutritional intervention, delivery mode, amount, frequency and duration of intervention, and treatment for comparison group; and d outcome evaluation, including the follow-up period and the method of measurement.

As the aim of the study was to compare the effects of the combination of resistance training and nutritional interventions with those of resistance training alone on muscle mass, strength, and physical performance, when more than two groups were present, only the data we intended to compare were recorded.

The RoB2 tool consists of five domains: the randomization process, deviation from intended intervention, missing outcome data, measurement of outcome, and selection of the reported result. This process was carried out by two independent researchers, and inconsistencies were resolved through discussion.

The effect sizes of the combination of resistance training and a nutritional intervention were calculated using the mean difference MD or standardized MD SMD for continuous outcome data for muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical functional performance. When a study provided data on more than one outcome for the same construct ex: timed up-and-go and 4-m walk tests for physical functional performance , valid, reliable and commonly used measures for frailty and sarcopenia were selected by reviewing the associated literature and considering the frequencies of their use in the included studies.

As a result, lean body mass and appendicular skeletal muscle mass were selected for muscle mass, hand grip strength and knee extension strength for muscle strength, and the chair stand tests and timed up-and-go tests for physical functional performance.

Fat-free mass was included in the analysis when lean body mass was not available. In addition, if a study used different lengths of intervention and follow-up periods, we used the outcome values at the postintervention endpoint.

When only the mean change scores and standard deviation SD of each group were available, they were used instead of the postintervention endpoint mean and SD for the mean difference.

SMDs were used for studies using different units scale of the same measure ex: kg and Nm for strength. If there were more than two groups that could be considered experimental groups in the study, the groups were combined to create a single pairwise comparison in the meta-analysis to avoid unit-of-analysis error from multiple comparisons as recommended [ 27 ].

Studies for which we could not identify the outcome data necessary for quantitative synthesis after contacting the authors were excluded from this meta-analysis. Meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager RevMan 5. Individual MDs and SMDs were pooled using random effects models and the inverse variance method.

When the p value for the chi-squared test was less than 0. Subgroup analysis was conducted by nutritional intervention type. All subgroup differences were tested regarding the significance of the effect sizes and heterogeneity. Meta-regression was conducted to identify the potential effect moderator using the STATA 16 program.

p value s from random effect meta-regression were calculated using restricted maximum likelihood for continuous moderators. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation GRADE tool approach was used to assess the quality of evidence.

It compared the resistance training combined diet compared to resistance training only for muscle function. The GRADE tool comprised of risk of bias, inconsistency, indirectness, imprecision, publication bias. The grading was estimated as high, moderate, low and very low certainty of quality.

Figure 1 demonstrates the study selection process. After duplicates were removed, articles remained. After articles were excluded through title and abstract review, the full texts of 92 articles were reviewed. Sixty-seven articles were additionally excluded, and consequently, 25 articles were included in this systematic review.

In some papers, the necessary values for meta-analysis could not be identified, so 22 articles were included in the quantitative synthesis. Table 1 shows the characteristics of the included studies. Six RCTs were conducted in Canada, six in Japan, four in Brazil, two in the Netherlands, two in the USA and one each in France, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and the UK.

The studies were published between and The sample sizes ranged from 14 to Six studies were conducted in males only, five studies were conducted in females only, and 14 studies were conducted in both males and females.

All of the studies administered supervised exercise programs except one study [ 46 ] which included home-based resistance training with consistent encouragement.

In almost all the studies, the exercise programs were performed twice 6 studies or three times 16 studies a week on nonconsecutive days; the exercise programs were performed daily in two studies and once a week in one study.

The RCTs provided protein eight studies , creatine five studies , long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids PUFA omega-3 two studies , calcium one study , maslinic acid one study , vitamins C and E two studies , creatine and linoleic acid one study , creatine and protein one study , vitamin D one study , and multinutrients containing more than three nutrients three studies.

Most studies provided nutritional supplements in pill, capsule, powder or drink forms, and a study provided a personalized and nutritionally balanced diet [ 38 ]. Most studies provided control groups with an isocaloric placebo.

Two studies provided the control groups with pills or capsules containing some nutrients, such as calcium or omega-3 [ 36 , 49 ]. The risk of bias results for the 25 RCTs are demonstrated in Fig. Regarding the randomization process, seven studies had a low risk of bias, 17 had some concerns, and one study had a high risk of bias because of a failure to conceal group allocation.

Regarding deviation from the intended intervention, three had some concerns, and the others had a low risk of bias. As there were no studies in which missing values were judged to have an impact on the study results, all studies had a low risk of bias in the domain of missing outcome data.

In the fifth domain, the selection of the reported results, 10 studies had a low risk of bias, while the other 15 studies had some concerns because of the absence of a prespecified trial protocol.

Overall, five RCTs had a low risk of bias, 19 RCTs had some concerns, and one study had a high risk of bias.

Effects of resistance training and nutritional interventions compared with those of resistance training only on muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical functional performance. The results of the subgroup analyses according to the type of nutritional interventions are shown in Table 2.

The mean age of the subjects and duration of interventions were included as explanatory variables in a univariate regression model. There were six outcomes to compare the quality of evidence for resistance training combined a nutritional intervention compared to resistance training alone for muscle function.

The hand grip strength and chair stand test were of moderate certainty. The other outcomes were low. The GRADE summary of the findings is shown in Additional file 2.

Nutrient-dense foods that ensure sufficient intake of energy, protein and micronutrients are important to prevent frailty and sarcopenia and promote physical activity. However, to date, the optimal type of nutritional intervention or supplementation for the prevention of frailty and sarcopenia is unclear.

This study was conducted to compare the synergistic effect of nutritional interventions combined with resistance training with that of resistance training alone. This study can provide insight into resource optimization and strategies to prevent frailty and sarcopenia. This systematic review and meta-analysis showed that there were no additional effects of nutritional interventions when combined with resistance training on muscle mass, strength, or physical function.

Of note, in two studies, the control conditions included some nutrients that have biological benefits [ 36 , 49 ], which likely reduced the calculated effect size when the data for the control conditions were pooled. However, the findings of the sensitivity analysis showed little possibility of blunted effects.

One of the possible reasons for this lack of significant results is that the analysis included studies of healthy older adults who might not have nutrient deficiencies with the usual diets [ 23 ].

Healthy diets provide a broad range of micronutrients and bioactive nonnutrients as well as macronutrients that might not be included in the experimental supplements in trials.

In addition, since diets are patterned, isolating the effects of individual experimental supplements might not be possible without controlling for the usual diet. Thus, the effects of nutritional interventions might be blunted among older adults who habitually consume sufficient nutrients.

It is necessary to additionally consider the dose of the nutrient and duration of intervention and monitor dietary energy intake. Despite the lack of evidence, greater benefits of resistance training along with nutritional supplementation are expected in older adults who already have poor muscle function or habitually have low nutrient intake.

In the subgroup analysis of the types of nutrients, only creatine showed significant effects on lean body mass. Recent systematic reviews similarly identified the additive effect of creatine during resistance training on body composition, muscle strength, and physical function [ 56 , 57 ].

As skeletal muscle has no capacity for creatine biosynthesis, the consumption of creatine-containing food or supplementation of creatine increases creatine and phosphocreatine levels in skeletal muscle and elevates phosphate resynthesis energy buffer during high-energy demanded exercise, such as repetitive resistance training training [ 58 , 59 , 60 ].

Creatine helps to increase muscle mass and strength by indirectly increasing work capacity, and the combination of creatine supplementation and resistance training promotes muscle protein synthesis. Alternatively, creatine supplementation may enhance muscle protein synthesis stimulating signaling pathways myogenic regulatory factors , which facilitate myosatellite cell proliferation and differentiation [ 61 ].

Controversy exists as to whether creatine stores and metabolism are affected by aging, but creatine supplements can account for dietary changes and reductions in physical activity with aging [ 57 ]. The effect sizes for variables other than lean body mass were not significant in this study.

Additional meta-analyses including more experimental studies are needed to verify the effects of creatine on muscle mass and function in older adults.

As proteins provide amino acids that are essential for muscle protein synthesis and act as anabolic stimuli, protein consumption increases muscle mass, and protein consumption following resistance training enhances net protein utilization, attenuating exercise-induced muscle protein breakdown [ 60 , 62 ].

The combination of protein supplements and exercise was expected to have a synergistic effect on muscle function, but the findings of this study did not support this hypothesis. On the other hand, in a previous meta-analysis, protein supplements for sarcopenic older adults along with exercise showed a larger effect size than exercise alone and no intervention [ 24 ].

The previous meta-analysis was conducted in frail, sarcopenic, or mobility-limited older adults and included not only community-dwelling older adults but also institutionalized older adults.

Individuals with existing nutritional deficiencies or poor muscle function might have been shown to respond better to accompanying nutritional supplements than to exercise alone.

Additional studies are needed to determine whether the inconsistency in findings resulted from the characteristics of the subjects. Muscle protein synthesis through protein intake in older adults should be maximized with consideration of the frequency, distribution, and other nutritional components, such as creatine, vitamins, and fatty acids [ 22 , 60 ].

Among the included studies, most studies provided A previous review showed that multi-ingredient protein supplements have the potential to increase the benefits of resistance training, but there were no differences in the effects on muscle mass and strength between multi-ingredient protein and single protein [ 63 ].

The impact of multiple nutrients is unclear, but there are complex interactions between food components inducing potential synergistic effects. Thus, nutritional interventions involving dietary modifications with various and balanced nutrients or whole food approaches rather than a single specific nutrient can be effective in improving muscle mass and function [ 64 ].

Among the 25 RCTs, three provided multinutrients that were arbitrarily defined as containing three or more nutrients.

Of the three studies, only one used a whole-diet approach. The number of studies was too small to verify the effect of the whole-food or whole-diet approach. Nutritional effects may not manifest following dietary interventions of short durations. Although the meta-regression results did not show that the intervention period was associated with effect sizes, a 6-year longitudinal study showed a positive relationship between daily protein intake and muscle strength [ 65 ]; nutritional contributions can be expected to be observed in the long term.

Thus, despite the nonsignificant results, nutritional interventions may still be beneficial for older adults who do not lack nutrients. With aging, muscle loss breakdown occurs more rapidly than muscle synthesis, so additional supplements may be required.

As consumed food is metabolized to synthesize energy for organ function, poor nourishment leads to body fat and muscle being catabolized to provide energy.

Not only a lack of specific nutrients but also the consumption of an insufficient amount of food contributes to weight loss and declines in muscle mass, strength and physical function, which can lead to physical frailty and sarcopenia.

Thus, the consumption of an adequate amount of food containing nutrients essential for muscle function is important to maintain muscle mass, strength, and physical function [ 22 , 58 ].

Considering that changes occur in various physiological functions as well as muscle function, interventions with a balanced diet are important in older people. As nutritional interventions have the advantages of low costs and high availability and accessibility, additional studies are necessary to determine whether they can be effective in preventing frailty and sarcopenia.

This study has several limitations. First, this meta-analysis included only retrievable RCTs that were published in English, which may have contributed to language bias.

Second, this study in healthy older adults might not have demonstrated significant effects on muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical function due to the ceiling effect. Additional systematic reviews and meta-analyses are needed to identify the additional effects of nutritional interventions when combined with resistance training among dynapenic, sarcopenic, or frail older adults.

Third, the range of nutritional interventions included in this study were vast because each nutrient has a different mechanism that affects muscle synthesis, function, or prevention of muscle damage.

Future studies need to be more focused on a specific nutritional intervention. Finally, as mentioned above, the amount, frequency, and distribution of nutrients administered are important to consider to fully assess the effects of nutritional interventions; however, these factors were not assessed in the meta-analysis.

As the levels of variability in muscle mass and functional measurements are quite high in older adults, it is hard to obtain adequate statistical power to verify differences between groups in many studies on nutritional interventions.

This meta-analysis showed that nutritional interventions have no additional effect on body composition, muscle strength, or physical function when combined with resistance training.

The enhanced effect of nutritional interventions for unhealthy older adults, such as frail, sarcopenic, or nutritionally deficient older adults, needs to be investigated in future studies.

The long-term effects of nutrition on muscle function also need to be studied. In addition, additional studies should be conducted to identify the dietary parameters that maximize nutritional effects on muscle protein synthesis, including dose, frequency, distribution, and recipes that take into account interactions with other nutrients.

Health-promoting interventions such as exercise and diet are important for at-risk older adults to prevent clinically evident disability. This systematic review and meta-analysis provides a comprehensive synthesis of the experimental results available to date for health practitioners and researchers to establish intervention strategies or public health policies.

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Download references. Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands. School of Sports Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar.

SYO prepared the original draft of the manuscript. TDB, IR, and LvL contributed to the editing and preparation of the final manuscript. Correspondence to Sara Y. SYO and IR are employees of the Gatorade Sports Science Institute, a division of PepsiCo, Incorporated.

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GeroScience 43 , — Download citation. Received : 26 February Accepted : 06 July Published : 20 July Issue Date : October Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

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Dietary Protein Considerations to Support Active Aging Article Open access 30 October International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: protein and exercise Article Open access 20 June Growing older with health and vitality: a nexus of physical activity, exercise and nutrition Article Open access 15 February Use our pre-submission checklist Avoid common mistakes on your manuscript.

Introduction Population aging is a global phenomenon. Dietary protein Recommendations for daily protein intakes for athletes 1. Full size image. Carbohydrate periodization Carbohydrate periodization refers to adjusting the daily intake of carbohydrate and carbohydrate intake during exercise to match the demands and objectives of athletic training [ 61 ].

Table 2 Daily carbohydrate intake guidelines based on physical activity level. Suggested ranges accommodate likely variations in individual goals specifically related to body composition. Lower intakes should be targeted to accommodate weight loss and fat loss, whereas upper targets should be considered for weight maintenance or gain Full size table.

Future directions Given the growing population of older people across the globe, there is an increased need for the determination of effective nutritional strategies to offset the development of age-related conditions sarcopenia, osteoporosis, dementia, etc.

Summary In summary, nutritional strategies used by athletes in pursuit of performance enhancements are applicable to improve skeletal muscle health in healthy older people. Data availability Not applicable. Code availability Not applicable. Abbreviations NO 3 : Inorganic nitrate LBM: Lean body mass MPS: Muscle protein synthesis n-3PUFA: N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid PCr: Phosphocreatine RE: Resistance exercise.

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Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Download references. Brisbois Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands Luc J. van Loon School of Sports Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK Ian Rollo Authors Sara Y.

Oikawa View author publications. View author publications. Ethics declarations Competing interests SYO and IR are employees of the Gatorade Sports Science Institute, a division of PepsiCo, Incorporated. Ethics approval Not applicable. Consent to participate Not applicable.

Consent for publication Not applicable. Rights and permissions This article is published under an open access license. About this article. Cite this article Oikawa, S.

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Effect of Nutritional Nutrition periodization for older adults and Regular SEO analysis and improvements Patterns pwriodization the Functionality of Obese Elderly People: A Review. Efecto de la intervención nutricional y los patrones de ejercicio en Nutriiton funcionalidad de las personas mayores obesas: una revisión. Universitas Medicavol. Abstract: Elderly people are susceptible to obesity-associated cardiovascular diseases, which are risk factors for frail elderly. The purpose of this study is to determine exercise and nutrition regimens for obese elderly to improve functionality. This systematic review complies with the PRISMA statement.

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Nutrition Tips for the Elderly - HealthXChange Skeletal muscle mass losses with age are associated with negative health consequences, including an Nutrition periodization for older adults risk of developing metabolic odler and the loss of Ilder. Athletes adopt numerous Nutrition periodization for older adults strategies to maximize the benefits of exercise training and enhance periodizatikn in pursuit of improving skeletal muscle quality, mass, or function. Food and nutrition, many of Nutfition principles applied to periodizatiob skeletal muscle health in athletes may be applicable to support active aging and prevent sarcopenia in the healthy non-clinical aging population. Here, we discuss the anabolic properties of protein supplementation in addition to ingredients that may enhance the anabolic effects of protein e. omega 3 s, creatine, inorganic nitrate in older persons. We conclude that nutritional strategies used in pursuit of performance enhancement in athletes are often applicable to improve skeletal muscle health in the healthy older population when implemented as part of a healthy active lifestyle. Further research is required to elucidate the mechanisms by which these nutrients may induce favourable changes in skeletal muscle and to determine the appropriate dosing and timing of nutrient intakes to support active aging. Nutrition periodization for older adults

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