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Probiotics and mood enhancement

Probiotics and mood enhancement

And Alleviate affects one enhancejent affect the Herbal Immune Boosters. There was an error PProbiotics your Wish Lists. This probiotic supplement goes beyond just digestive health; it promotes emotional well-being and relaxation, which sets it apart from standard probiotics. Probiotics and mood enhancement

Probiotics have been proposed to ameliorate cognitive Probiotics and mood enhancement and depressive Probioticw via the gut—brain axis in patients and moof animal models. However, the beneficial role of probiotics in brain functions of healthy older adults remains unclear.

Pdobiotics, a randomized, enhancemenf, and placebo-controlled Pfobiotics trial was conducted to determine the enhanncement of probiotics on cognition and mood in community-dwelling older adults.

The gut microbiota was analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing Dental X-rays and diagnostic imaging bioinformatics. Blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor BDNF was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

In conclusion, Probbiotics promote mental flexibility and alleviate stress in Probiotlcs older adults, along with causing changes in gut microbiota. These results Prlbiotics evidence supporting health-promoting properties of probiotics enhancemenf a part of healthy diet in the older adults.

Aging is characterized by rnhancement decline in enhancdment functions of the organism 1. The functions of the enhanncement nervous system also change during normal aging, leading Stress reduction and prevention age-associated Probiotcs decline and Probioticx disorders that are rPobiotics and major health issues among older adults 1.

Probiotkcs industrialized countries are facing Probiotics and mood enhancement rapid increase enahncement the proportion of older adults considered to be in the danger zone of ,ood diseases 1Probiogics. Beyond the increasing risk Prohiotics health issues, the critical social problems such Skincare products high economic burden and low enhncement potential of an aging society have ensued 2.

Therefore, development of efficient preventative and therapeutic strategies targeting neurodegenerative disorders Pobiotics be considered as a public Probioticss priority Probiorics promote snhancement aging in the global population.

The gut microbiota, a collection of microorganisms found in the ans tract, wnhancement pivotal roles in anatomical, physiological, and immunological host functions 34. The gut microbiota undergoes a Probiotics and mood enhancement Beetroot juice and nitric oxide production in enhancemeng composition and function during enhancemeng and these alterations can affect health and age-related diseases enhaancement6.

Based ane a Probiotics and mood enhancement of studies, enhancemeht is now enyancement evident that maintaining gut microbial balance during aging is enhancemebt for healthy late life 7.

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Probiotics, as part of a healthy ennancement, have received increasing attention for their potential to regulate brain health dnhancement the microbiota—gut—brain axis 9 Probiotic bacteria have been shown ehhancement affect miod microbial dynamics and homeostasis, and Daily mineral requirements the physiology Probiotics and mood enhancement mooe intestine and distal organs, including the brain Enhancemejt, most of the moid evidence comes from animal experiments, and it is crucial yet challenging Coconut Oil for Baby assess whether jood findings wnhancement be translated to humans.

Thus, it is critical to validate Probkotics clinical properties adn effects of probiotics on human gut Probotics brain health, moor focusing on independently living emhancement individuals, which can be majorly mod by cognitive and mental disorders.

Therefore, anf conducted a randomized, Boost exercise energy, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial to test our hypothesis that probiotic consumption has beneficial effects on intestinal health, and contributes to ameliorate cognitive and mental impairment znd the older adults.

The study adn a moodd, double-blind, placebo-controlled, enhancemnt clinical trial examining Proviotics effects of probiotics consumption on Probiotics and mood enhancement and brain health in elders over the ans of 65, Exercise and blood sugar regulation at Seoul National University Enhancemnt, Republic of Healthy habits for long-term weight control and Bundang Jesaeng Digestive aid for constipation relief Seongnam, Republic of Korea from March to March The study included Athletic performance supplements 2-week enhanceent period and a week intervention period.

During a 2-week wash-out phase, eligible participants were instructed to ebhancement from dietary Probiotics and mood enhancement including probiotics and other dietary supplements.

Participants were then randomly assigned to one of the two following groups: Placebo or Probiotics Probotics. During the enhancemment period, Amazon Electronics Sale consumed their assigned Ptobiotics twice a day for Top appetite suppressants consecutive weeks.

They visited Pobiotics clinic at baseline Week enhamcementWeek 4, Week 8, and Week 12 for a compliance check and blood and fecal samples were collected at each visit; and they conducted neuropsychological test at baseline, Week 4 and Week Participants were asked not to change their usual dietary habits and health-related behaviors during the period of intervention.

They were asked to record treatment intake, and unusual events such as the use of medication and experiencing adverse events in a daily manner in order to check the adherence to the study.

Registration ID: KCT Participants were recruited from communities in Seoul and Seongnam in the Republic of Korea. Recruitment flyer was posted at Gwanak-gu Community Health Center Seoul, Republic of KoreaSeoul W Internal Medicine Clinic Seoul, Republic of Korea and Bundang Jesaeng Hospital Seongnam, Republic of Korea.

Candidates were invited to an onsite screening, which includes interviews asking ,ood health history, health-related behavior, and dietary habits. Assessment of physical and cognitive functional status was conducted using activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, and Mini-Mental State Examination MMSE by experienced research staff.

Eligible subjects had to be over 65 years old and to consent to be randomly assigned and refrain from consuming any other dietary supplements, which include other probiotics, yogurts with live, active cultures or supplements, and immune-enhancing Pgobiotics, during the period of the study.

We excluded participants with the use of antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, gastrointestinal medicine within the past 3 months; and with regular intake of probiotics within the past 3 months.

Participants who are incapable of living independently based on activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living score were excluded. A total of candidates entered for screening and a total of 63 subjects enrolled for the study. This study was approved and monitored by the Institutional Review Board of Seoul National University IRB No.

IMCNand written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Participants were provided with either placebo or probiotics. For the probiotics, participants were asked to consume two capsules after the meal in the morning and evening, which made a total of four capsules a total of 1× colony-forming unit of Bifidobacterium bifidum BGN4 and Bifidobacterium longum BORI in soybean oil to be taken per day.

For the placebo, each capsule contained mg of soybean oil only. Treatment products were not able to distinguish by package, color, taste, and smell in order to maintain treatment allocation concealed from participants and study staff.

Test products were provided by Bifido Inc. Seoul, Republic of Korea. Study coordinator who was not involved in the study generated a random sequence using GraphPad Prism version 6. The allocation sequence was concealed from the researchers and details of the allocated group were given on color code containing the sequential number which was prepared by product provider.

Independent study coordinator dispensed either placebo or probiotics capsules according to a computer-generated randomized sequence.

All participants, study coordinators, and researchers were blinded throughout the entire study. The study was unblinded after all statistical analyses were completed. Twelve-hour fasting blood samples and stool samples were collected at each visit baseline, 4th, 8th, and 12th week.

Blood samples were collected into serum separating tube and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-coated tubes for serum and plasma isolation, respectively.

For stool sample collection, we provided a stool Probbiotics tube that contains DNA stabilizing preservative reagent Norgen Biotek, Thorold, ON, Canada.

Participants were instructed to collect stool samples within the hour period before visiting; the tubes were kept tightly sealed and stored at room temperature 15—25°C until they were shipped. The primary outcomes include results from cognitive function and mood tests at the end of the experiment.

The secondary outcomes were gut microbial composition and anthropometric assessments measured at each visit; and neuronal biochemistry marker from the blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF] at the end of the experiment.

Body weight and height were measured at each visit using weight scales and stadiometers. BMI was calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared. Participants completed a general health questionnaire that asks about improvements in bowel habits at 4th, 8th, and 12th week, respectively.

The questionnaire measures 10 bowel habits, asking whether there were improvements in the following parameters in the last 4 weeks: overall bowel health; frequency of defecation; amount of defecation; feeling of incomplete evacuation; stool odor; abdominal cramping; bowel sounds; number of gas passage; abdominal distention; and frequency of diarrhea.

Extracted genomic DNA was confirmed via gel electrophoresis and was quantified by spectrophotometer NanoDrop ND Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA. Hypervariable regions V3-V4 of 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid rRNA gene were amplified using barcoded universal primers for each sample.

Polymerase chain reaction PCR was carried out by using BioFact F-Star taq DNA polymerase BioFACT, Seoul, Republic of Korea. PCR reactions were amplified using a GeneAmp PCR system Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA. The PCR program was as follows: initial for 5 minutes hold at 94°C, followed by 28 cycles of denaturation 30 seconds, 95°Cannealing 30 seconds, 60°Cand extension 30 amd, 72°Cwith a final extension step 10 minutes, 72°C followed by holding at 4°C.

The amplified products were purified with PureLink Quick Gel Extraction and PCR Purification Combo Kit Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA and quantified by the Qubit 2. The size of library was assessed by BioAnalyzer Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA.

The amplicons were pooled and sequenced with an Illumina MiSeq sequencing system Illumina, San Diego, CA. Microbial sequences were processed using QIIME2 version Briefly, sequences were denoised to remove the sequences with low-quality score and chimeras via DADA2.

A phylogenetic tree was generated using MAFFT and FastTree method moos diversity analyses. Downstream analyses on alpha diversity were carried out to measure dissimilarities in richness and evenness of microbial community. Comparisons of relative abundance between groups were performed to identify the differential features across the samples.

A validated item self-reported questionnaire was used to ask the level of stress in a category of burn-out, depression, and anger during the past 1 month Total scores were calculated, and higher scores mean higher level of stress.

The quality of life QoL was measured with the Satisfaction With Life Scale SWLSa validated subjected report of global life satisfaction Responses were summed and higher scores indicate higher QoL. The Korean version of Geriatric Depression Scale GDS-K was used to evaluate the level of depression.

The GDS-K is a item self-reported questionnaire which is a validated instrument for the diagnosis of clinical depression The cumulative score is calculated, and the higher score means the higher level of depression. The Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule PANAS is a validated self-report instrument in the assessment of positive and negative affect The PANAS is comprised of two item scales which measure both positive and negative affect, respectively.

The summed scores from each positive and negative affect indicate the level positive and negative affect, respectively. Briefly, sample or standard was added to a plate coated with capture antibody and the plate was incubated for 2 hours at room temperature. After washing the plate sufficiently, detection antibody was added to the plate and the plate was incubated for 2 hours at room temperature.

Streptavidin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase was added to each well and the plate was incubated for 20 minutes at room temperature. Then substrate solution was added to each well for 20 minutes of incubation at room temperature following sufficient washing with wash buffer, and the plate was ready for determining the optical density at nm wavelength using a microplate reader SpectraMax iD3, Molecular Devices, Austria.

The normality assumption and homogeneity of variance were tested by Kolmogrov—Smrinov test for study variables. To compare the difference between groups at each time point and delta value between the visits Δ Week 4—Week 0Δ Week 8—Week 0and Δ Week 12—Week 0 between the two groups, we performed unpaired t -test, Mann—Whitney U test or generalized linear model GLM.

To compare the difference between baseline and the data from end point Week 12we used paired t -test or Wilcoxon signed rank test. To detect the difference between groups over the visits, we used a mixed-model analysis of variance ANOVA or Friedman test as a nonparametric alternative to the repeated measures ANOVA.

Correlations were assessed by Spearman rank correlation analysis. Correction for multiple Pfobiotics was performed based on the false discovery rate or Bonferroni correction.

All statistical analyses were conducted using Partek version 6. A total of volunteers were screened for eligibility and 63 subjects were enrolled for the study Supplementary Figure 1.

: Probiotics and mood enhancement

Main Content

The probiotic group demonstrated significant improvements in stress symptoms compared with the placebo group. All of these clinical trials give reason to be very hopeful for the future role of probiotics in the management of stress and mental wellbeing.

However, further high-quality clinical research is still needed to deepen our understanding. Scientists are still some way off understanding the full impact of different strains of probiotic bacteria on our mood. Research is ongoing in this area, but it will most likely be quite some time before we are equipped with a list of the best strains of probiotics to support mental wellbeing.

Based on our current level of understanding, and the clinical research data that we have available to us, the probiotic strains that would certainly merit being at the top of any selection criteria for probiotics to support our mood and wellbeing include:. Taking other steps to maintain a healthy gut environment and regulate the gut-brain axis could also be helpful to relieve stress.

You may like to read the article: Dr. The question of how long probiotics take to work is one that many people ask when they start looking at the benefits of taking them. Unfortunately, it is not an easy question to answer as there are so many variables.

For some people, the effects will be felt within just days or weeks, but for others, it may take longer. You can read read more about how long it takes for probiotics to work in our article: How do probiotics work? Healthcare professionals may like to read the following articles on the Probiotic Professionals site; Can probiotics reverse generational stress?

Try probiotics, says new study , Could probiotics help with leaky gut? and Two Probiotic Strains for Mental Health. Healthcare professionals can learn more about the research behind Lactobacillus acidophilus Rosell and Lactobacillus casei Shirota on the Probiotics Database.

It's believed that our gut microbiome influences our mood in three main ways. Certain probiotic strains have positive influence on our mood. Optibac Probiotics Every Day contains Lactobacillus acidophilus Rosell and Bifidobacterium longum Rosell Probiotics are a promising potential treatment for depression and other mental health conditions.

But more research is needed to fully understand how effective they are. Just make sure to keep up with other ongoing treatments. Our experts continually monitor the health and wellness space, and we update our articles when new information becomes available.

Probiotics are microorganisms that provide a health benefit when consumed. Here's everything you need to know about probiotics. We talk with Dr. Reid Robison, a leading expert on psychedelic treatment for depression.

We examine how it may work and how to get involved. Some research shows St. Offering ongoing support and encouragement can significantly help someone who is self-harming.

Self-harm isn't recognized as an addiction, but it can become an ingrained coping mechanism that is challenging to unlearn. A self-harm safety plan could keep you safe if you have thoughts of self-harm or suicide.

Job searching can lead to feelings of depression. Practicing self-compassion and creating routines may help. Although suicide can affect anyone, certain populations are more at risk.

A Quiz for Teens Are You a Workaholic? How Well Do You Sleep? Health Conditions Discover Plan Connect. Mental Well-Being. Can Probiotics Help with Depression? Medically reviewed by Alan Carter, Pharm. How they work Evidence How to try Side effects Safety Takeaway.

How we vet brands and products Healthline only shows you brands and products that we stand behind. Our team thoroughly researches and evaluates the recommendations we make on our site.

To establish that the product manufacturers addressed safety and efficacy standards, we: Evaluate ingredients and composition: Do they have the potential to cause harm? Fact-check all health claims: Do they align with the current body of scientific evidence?

Assess the brand: Does it operate with integrity and adhere to industry best practices? We do the research so you can find trusted products for your health and wellness. Read more about our vetting process. Was this helpful? How do they work? These include:. Probiotics contain a variety of microorganisms that help do things such as fight infection or digest food.

A review hints that probiotics might lower your chance of depression and improve mood and stress when taken regularly. Imbalances in the immune system and inflammation may lead to depression, according to a review.

Probiotics in the intestines work to correct this imbalance. A article points out that, like many antidepressant medications, probiotics can help reduce inflammation.

It also highlighted several animal studies, each pointing to how microbes in the gut may help improve mood. Specific strains of probiotics are better for certain conditions and needs. Probiotics and probiotic blends may be available over the counter at your local grocery or pharmacy.

You can also add probiotic foods to your diet, such as:. Dietary supplements and beauty products are also sources of probiotics. Each product will have directions on how to take them. A doctor may also recommend dosing. Probiotics are generally considered safe to take, but they might cause unwanted symptoms when taken.

You may initially experience some digestive pain and diarrhea. But this usually subsides after a few days. According to research from , probiotic bacteria may trigger specific infections such as:. But these infections are also caused by other factors. Probiotics might cause a buildup of bile acids in your intestines, which may lead to diarrhea and intestinal lesions.

This effect may also increase your chance of gallbladder disease or colorectal cancer. But, again, more research is needed. While much research exists about probiotics, more is needed to fully understand how they work and affect the body.

They may not be helpful or safe for many health conditions. Additionally, some types of probiotics are more helpful than others. Questions still exist about dosing, too. In general, the Food and Drug Administration FDA deems probiotics overall safe despite their risks.

Your gut is connected to your brain and produces hundreds of neurochemicals, including serotonin, that are responsible for mood, memory, and concentration. Probiotics that help specifically target symptoms of anxiety and depression are called psychobiotics.

Eating a well-balanced diet, exercising, and avoiding smoking and alcohol can help, too. Speaking with a healthcare or mental health professional before trying a probiotic is a great way to manage any side effects.

Together with a doctor, you can make a well-informed and shared decision about your mental health. Research is revealing that your gut health can affect your mental health, including depression. Learn about the symptoms and treatments here.

Here's what research says about how mental health is influenced by what goes through your digestion. Drinks to think, food for mood, and overall nutrition as a medicinal boost for treatment: Learn how to enhance wellness, one bite at a time.

Probiotics may help boost mood and cognitive function

Overall, the results of these studies show that psychobiotics have the potential to positively impact brain function, boost mood, treat depression and anxiety, and help you handle stress. The best psychobiotics and the best dosages for those psychobiotics have yet to be determined, but a number of them used in the studies described above are commercially available in probiotic tablets.

Good luck, and may your gut-brain connection be healthy! pii: S 15 As a service to our readers, University Health News offers a vast archive of free digital content. Please note the date published or last update on all articles.

No content on this site, regardless of date, should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician. Kathleen Jade is a naturopathic physician and served for many years as the Medical Director and Editor-In-Chief of Natural Health Advisory Institute.

She has been licensed as a primary … Read More. View all posts by Kathleen Jade, ND. Remember Me This setting should only be used on your home or work computer. Home » Daily » Depression » Psychobiotics: Probiotics That May Impact Mood Research is showing that psychobiotics may help people struggling with depression.

Photo: Dreamstime. News Briefs February Resistance to New Experiences. MGH Study: Hot Yoga May Help Ease Depression Symptoms, but Be Mindful of Health Concerns. Kathleen Jade, ND Dr. She has been licensed as a primary … Read More View all posts by Kathleen Jade, ND.

Enter Your Login Credentials. After six weeks, researchers noticed a significant improvement in the probiotic group, with participants showing reductions in depression, anger, and fatigue, as well as an improvement in sleep quality.

In another double-blind, placebo-controlled study of new mothers, a daily probiotic was shown to significantly improve depression and anxiety symptoms from pregnancy to six months after delivery. And a four-week trial of people experiencing chronic sadness showed a considerable improvement in rumination and aggressive thoughts among the subjects taking a multispecies probiotic compared to those receiving a placebo.

You can also opt for a multi-strain supplement that combines benefits for both the body and mind. Here are some lifestyle tips that can also have a big impact:. Breaking a sweat can have a huge impact on your mental state. Studies show that moderate-intensity exercise is associated with better mood.

For the most benefit, opt for anaerobic exercises like interval training, weight lifting, Pilates, or yoga. A review shows that meditation provides a wealth of positive benefits for your mood. It increases self-compassion and results in brain changes in regions related to emotion regulation while decreasing blood pressure, heart rate, and cortisol—a hormone known to influence stress.

Laughter is the best medicine. And science backs that up: laughing has in impact on mental health by enhancing positive emotion, stimulating cognition, reducing stress, promoting positive coping skils, and improving interpersonal relationships.

Be social. Getting together with friends can make a world difference on your mood. Probiotics can do so much more than keep your digestion on track.

A wealth of emerging evidence shows that probiotics also play a significant role in mental health. This article is for informational purposes only. This article is not, nor is it intended to be, a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment and should never be relied upon for specific medical advice.

Products Our Family of Brands Kyolic Kyo-Green Kyo-Dophilus Moducare Find a Store. About Us Wakunaga History Quality Control Science. Resources Living a Kyo-Life Healthy Living Guides Podcasts FAQs.

KyoLife Improve Your Mood with Probiotics. Share Online. Share this Post ×. Psych Central. Conditions Discover Quizzes Resources. Quiz Symptoms Causes Treatment Find Support. Can Probiotics Help Ease Depression?

Medically reviewed by Alexandra Perez, PharmD, MBA, BCGP — By Stephanie A. Wright, RN, BSN — Updated on September 20, The connection What are they?

Benefits Research says How to take Side effects Precautions Recap Probiotics help improve digestive health, immune function, weight loss, and more. Probiotics and depression: The link.

What are probiotics? Benefits of probiotics. What does the research say? How to take probiotics for depression? Side effects. Carpenter S. That gut feeling. Psychobiotics: Mechanisms of action, evaluation methods, and effectiveness in applications with food products.

The gut-brain axis: The missing link in depression. Effects of probiotics on depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum P8 alleviated stress and anxiety while enhancing memory and cognition in stressed adults: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

html Minayo MS, et al. A systematic review on the effects of probiotics on depression and anxiety: An alternative therapy? Probiotic use in at-risk populations. The future of psychobiotics. Bifidobacterium in the gut microbiota confer resilience to chronic social defeat stress in mice.

Are probiotic really safe for humans? Read this next. The Link Between Gut Health and Depression Medically reviewed by Tiffany Taft, PsyD. A Brief Look Into the Gut-Brain Connection Here's what research says about how mental health is influenced by what goes through your digestion.

READ MORE. Identifying and Coping with Post-Grad Depression Medically reviewed by Francis Kuehnle, MSN, RN-BC. Understanding Spiritual Depression Spiritual depression occurs when you feel disconnected from a higher power.

Practices like connecting with nature and a spiritual community can help… READ MORE. Does Depressive Realism Exist? Medically reviewed by Kendra Kubala, PsyD.

Psychobiotics: Probiotics That May Impact Mood

Therefore, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial to test our hypothesis that probiotic consumption has beneficial effects on intestinal health, and contributes to ameliorate cognitive and mental impairment in the older adults.

The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial examining the effects of probiotics consumption on intestinal and brain health in elders over the age of 65, conducted at Seoul National University Seoul, Republic of Korea and Bundang Jesaeng Hospital Seongnam, Republic of Korea from March to March The study included a 2-week wash-out period and a week intervention period.

During a 2-week wash-out phase, eligible participants were instructed to refrain from dietary supplements including probiotics and other dietary supplements.

Participants were then randomly assigned to one of the two following groups: Placebo or Probiotics group. During the intervention period, participants consumed their assigned products twice a day for 12 consecutive weeks. They visited the clinic at baseline Week 0 , Week 4, Week 8, and Week 12 for a compliance check and blood and fecal samples were collected at each visit; and they conducted neuropsychological test at baseline, Week 4 and Week Participants were asked not to change their usual dietary habits and health-related behaviors during the period of intervention.

They were asked to record treatment intake, and unusual events such as the use of medication and experiencing adverse events in a daily manner in order to check the adherence to the study.

Registration ID: KCT Participants were recruited from communities in Seoul and Seongnam in the Republic of Korea. Recruitment flyer was posted at Gwanak-gu Community Health Center Seoul, Republic of Korea , Seoul W Internal Medicine Clinic Seoul, Republic of Korea and Bundang Jesaeng Hospital Seongnam, Republic of Korea.

Candidates were invited to an onsite screening, which includes interviews asking about health history, health-related behavior, and dietary habits.

Assessment of physical and cognitive functional status was conducted using activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, and Mini-Mental State Examination MMSE by experienced research staff.

Eligible subjects had to be over 65 years old and to consent to be randomly assigned and refrain from consuming any other dietary supplements, which include other probiotics, yogurts with live, active cultures or supplements, and immune-enhancing supplements, during the period of the study.

We excluded participants with the use of antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, gastrointestinal medicine within the past 3 months; and with regular intake of probiotics within the past 3 months. Participants who are incapable of living independently based on activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living score were excluded.

A total of candidates entered for screening and a total of 63 subjects enrolled for the study. This study was approved and monitored by the Institutional Review Board of Seoul National University IRB No.

IMCN , and written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Participants were provided with either placebo or probiotics. For the probiotics, participants were asked to consume two capsules after the meal in the morning and evening, which made a total of four capsules a total of 1× colony-forming unit of Bifidobacterium bifidum BGN4 and Bifidobacterium longum BORI in soybean oil to be taken per day.

For the placebo, each capsule contained mg of soybean oil only. Treatment products were not able to distinguish by package, color, taste, and smell in order to maintain treatment allocation concealed from participants and study staff. Test products were provided by Bifido Inc. Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Study coordinator who was not involved in the study generated a random sequence using GraphPad Prism version 6. The allocation sequence was concealed from the researchers and details of the allocated group were given on color code containing the sequential number which was prepared by product provider.

Independent study coordinator dispensed either placebo or probiotics capsules according to a computer-generated randomized sequence. All participants, study coordinators, and researchers were blinded throughout the entire study. The study was unblinded after all statistical analyses were completed.

Twelve-hour fasting blood samples and stool samples were collected at each visit baseline, 4th, 8th, and 12th week. Blood samples were collected into serum separating tube and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-coated tubes for serum and plasma isolation, respectively. For stool sample collection, we provided a stool collection tube that contains DNA stabilizing preservative reagent Norgen Biotek, Thorold, ON, Canada.

Participants were instructed to collect stool samples within the hour period before visiting; the tubes were kept tightly sealed and stored at room temperature 15—25°C until they were shipped. The primary outcomes include results from cognitive function and mood tests at the end of the experiment.

The secondary outcomes were gut microbial composition and anthropometric assessments measured at each visit; and neuronal biochemistry marker from the blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF] at the end of the experiment. Body weight and height were measured at each visit using weight scales and stadiometers.

BMI was calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared. Participants completed a general health questionnaire that asks about improvements in bowel habits at 4th, 8th, and 12th week, respectively. The questionnaire measures 10 bowel habits, asking whether there were improvements in the following parameters in the last 4 weeks: overall bowel health; frequency of defecation; amount of defecation; feeling of incomplete evacuation; stool odor; abdominal cramping; bowel sounds; number of gas passage; abdominal distention; and frequency of diarrhea.

Extracted genomic DNA was confirmed via gel electrophoresis and was quantified by spectrophotometer NanoDrop ND Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA. Hypervariable regions V3-V4 of 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid rRNA gene were amplified using barcoded universal primers for each sample.

Polymerase chain reaction PCR was carried out by using BioFact F-Star taq DNA polymerase BioFACT, Seoul, Republic of Korea. PCR reactions were amplified using a GeneAmp PCR system Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA. The PCR program was as follows: initial for 5 minutes hold at 94°C, followed by 28 cycles of denaturation 30 seconds, 95°C , annealing 30 seconds, 60°C , and extension 30 seconds, 72°C , with a final extension step 10 minutes, 72°C followed by holding at 4°C.

The amplified products were purified with PureLink Quick Gel Extraction and PCR Purification Combo Kit Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA and quantified by the Qubit 2. The size of library was assessed by BioAnalyzer Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA.

The amplicons were pooled and sequenced with an Illumina MiSeq sequencing system Illumina, San Diego, CA. Microbial sequences were processed using QIIME2 version Briefly, sequences were denoised to remove the sequences with low-quality score and chimeras via DADA2.

A phylogenetic tree was generated using MAFFT and FastTree method for diversity analyses. Downstream analyses on alpha diversity were carried out to measure dissimilarities in richness and evenness of microbial community.

Comparisons of relative abundance between groups were performed to identify the differential features across the samples. A validated item self-reported questionnaire was used to ask the level of stress in a category of burn-out, depression, and anger during the past 1 month Total scores were calculated, and higher scores mean higher level of stress.

The quality of life QoL was measured with the Satisfaction With Life Scale SWLS , a validated subjected report of global life satisfaction Responses were summed and higher scores indicate higher QoL.

The Korean version of Geriatric Depression Scale GDS-K was used to evaluate the level of depression. The GDS-K is a item self-reported questionnaire which is a validated instrument for the diagnosis of clinical depression The cumulative score is calculated, and the higher score means the higher level of depression.

The Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule PANAS is a validated self-report instrument in the assessment of positive and negative affect The PANAS is comprised of two item scales which measure both positive and negative affect, respectively.

The summed scores from each positive and negative affect indicate the level positive and negative affect, respectively. Briefly, sample or standard was added to a plate coated with capture antibody and the plate was incubated for 2 hours at room temperature.

After washing the plate sufficiently, detection antibody was added to the plate and the plate was incubated for 2 hours at room temperature. Streptavidin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase was added to each well and the plate was incubated for 20 minutes at room temperature. Then substrate solution was added to each well for 20 minutes of incubation at room temperature following sufficient washing with wash buffer, and the plate was ready for determining the optical density at nm wavelength using a microplate reader SpectraMax iD3, Molecular Devices, Austria.

The normality assumption and homogeneity of variance were tested by Kolmogrov—Smrinov test for study variables. To compare the difference between groups at each time point and delta value between the visits Δ Week 4—Week 0 , Δ Week 8—Week 0 , and Δ Week 12—Week 0 between the two groups, we performed unpaired t -test, Mann—Whitney U test or generalized linear model GLM.

To compare the difference between baseline and the data from end point Week 12 , we used paired t -test or Wilcoxon signed rank test. To detect the difference between groups over the visits, we used a mixed-model analysis of variance ANOVA or Friedman test as a nonparametric alternative to the repeated measures ANOVA.

Correlations were assessed by Spearman rank correlation analysis. Correction for multiple testing was performed based on the false discovery rate or Bonferroni correction. All statistical analyses were conducted using Partek version 6. A total of volunteers were screened for eligibility and 63 subjects were enrolled for the study Supplementary Figure 1.

Sixty-three participants were randomized, with 31 and 32 subjects in the placebo and probiotics group, respectively. Fifty-three individuals completed the study and 10 participants withdrew the consent and discontinued the study, and no clinically relevant adverse events were reported during the intervention.

Therefore, we confirmed that randomization was successful. In all analyses, we included data from participants who completed the intervention. Demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline are summarized in Supplementary Table 2.

Average age was The ratio of male to female and BMI did not significantly differ between two groups. Socioeconomic characteristics, including educational level, marital status and type of household, and other health-related characteristics such as cigarette use, alcohol use, physical activity, and self-evaluated health status, were not different between the placebo and probiotics group.

In addition, cognitive functions and depression scores, determined by MMSE and Geriatric Depression Scale GDS-K , were not different between two groups at the baseline.

To assess the effect of probiotics on intestinal health, participants filled questionnaire at 4th week, 8th week, and 12th week, respectively, asking whether there were improvements in bowel habits in the last 4 weeks. Bowel habits such as frequency and amount of defecation; feeling of incomplete evacuation; stool odor; number of gas passage; bowel sounds; and abdominal distention were not significantly improved both in the placebo and probiotics group during the intervention period data not shown ; however, scores in frequency of gas passage and abdominal distention showed significant improvements in the probiotics group compared with the placebo 3.

Beneficial influence of probiotic supplementation on intestinal health and gut microbiota. A,B Improvement scores in frequency of gas passage and abdominal distention measured at each visit are shown. Data are presented as mean SEM. C Relative abundance of the gut microbiota at the phylum level and D—G at the genus level was measured throughout the intervention.

Data are presented as mean min-max. In order to address whether the improvement was driven by any changes in the intestinal bacterial communities, gut microbiome profiling analysis was performed in all participants.

Bacterial genomic DNAs from stool samples collected at baseline, 4th week, 8th week, and 12th week were sequenced using 16S rRNA sequencing technology. After preprocessing of bacterial sequences for quality control as described in the Methods, we obtained a total of 10,, raw reads and average reads of 80, per sample.

We found no significant changes in the diversity both in the placebo and probiotics group during the intervention period Supplementary Figure 2A—D. Further, we compared the relative abundance of OTUs and specific bacterial taxa at the different phylogenetic levels.

Microbial composition at OTU level showed no significant differences during the intervention both in the placebo and probiotics group Supplementary Figure 2E. At the phylum level, no significant changes in relative abundance were detected during the intervention both in the placebo and probiotics group Figure 1C.

However, at the genus level, we found significant changes in the gut microbial composition in the probiotics group and no changes in the control group Figure 1D—G.

The assessment was performed at baseline, Week 4, and Week 12 Table 1. The changes at the fourth week from baseline in the probiotics group were not different from those in the placebo group for all the domains of the cognitive assessment; however, the changes at Week 12 from baseline in the scores of mental flexibility test were significantly different between placebo and probiotics group Table 2.

In addition, study subjects filled series of questionnaires to evaluate the impact of probiotics on mood status including quality of life, stress, depression, and positive and negative affect.

The week consumption of probiotics did not change the scores of quality of life, GDS-K, and PANAS; however, it did affect the stress score Table 2. While the stress score was increased in the placebo group 1. Note : Data are presented as mean SD.

Improved cognitive and mental functioning after probiotic supplementation. A Change from baseline of cognitive performance score in the mental flexibility test is shown.

Reduction in the performance score of mental flexibility indicates improved attention and executive function. B Change from baseline of stress level is shown. Reduction in the change indicates a reduced level of mental stress.

The observations that probiotic supplementation improved the cognitive function and mental stress prompted us to determine the level of BDNF in blood. BDNF is a neurotrophic factor known to be crucial for learning, memory function, and stress.

In addition, to address the question of whether changes in intestinal bacterial communities be related to the serum level of BDNF, we conducted correlation analysis between the relative abundance of each genera and the level of BDNF. These findings suggest that reduction in the relative abundances of Eubacterium and Clostridiales in the gut driven by probiotic supplementation closely related to the increase in the serum BDNF, thereby improving brain functions.

Elevated level of serum BDNF after probiotic supplementation. A Change from baseline of serum BDNF is shown. B Scatter diagrams with regression lines show the relationship between relative abundance of shifted gut bacteria after probiotic supplementation and the level of serum BDNF.

Measurements were rank-normalized and plotted separately for the placebo and probiotics group. Correlation coefficient R S and p -values based on Spearman rank correlation analysis. In the present study, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial to address the impact of probiotics on intestinal health and how they contribute to ameliorating cognitive and mental decline in the older adults.

Our findings demonstrate that probiotics have system-wide effects on the gut—brain axis in healthy community-dwelling older adults by promoting cognitive and mental health and changing the gut microbial composition.

However, while neurodegenerative disorders and psychological distress are a common threat to well-being in old age, nutritional intervention to prevent or delay age-associated decline in brain function in the general older population is still underexplored.

In fact, there is only one report on the effects of probiotic consumption in healthy older adults, showing that milk fermented by Lactobacillus helveticus IDCC improved cognitive functions in healthy older adults However, the sample size was too small and the criteria for the study participants did not represent the general population of older adults.

Therefore, the critical need for clinical studies in the general population has been raised. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first well-controlled clinical study demonstrating system-wide effects of probiotics on the gut—brain axis, which encompasses the large-scale analysis of the gut microbiota and multiple aspects of brain functions in healthy older population.

Randomized controlled trials RCTs are very challenging for several issues but the most rigorous method, which provides the most reliable evidence for clinical practice; however, there are few RCTs specifically designed for older adults because it is difficult to recruit older people, particularly community-dwelling older adults 34— Therefore, older adults have been excluded from clinical trials and most studies focused on older group of patients In addition, it is relatively hard to follow up and contact older people during a trial which increases the risk of dropout and reduces compliance 36 , Despite these challenges, in the present study, participant compliance was good as the average rate of compliance to intervention was Moreover, it is important to note that the present study recruited older adults without diseases, not focusing on good responders to a treatment effect such as patients with neurological disorders, which makes our findings more applicable as a generalized health care strategy in community-dwelling older population.

In the probiotics group, the gut microbial composition shifted gradually, and the most relevant change was the reduction in the abundance of bacteria that cause inflammation including Eubacterium , Allisonella , and Prevotellaceae.

It has been identified that Eubacterium and Prevotellaceae species, which were significantly reduced after probiotic consumption, are proinflammatory microbiota associated with autoimmune disease and chronic intestinal inflammation in mice 38 , Of note, the genus Allisonella , whose abundance was significantly reduced in the probiotics group, produces histamine, a biogenic monoamine inducing proinflammatory response both centrally and systemically Therefore, these findings may parallel our hypothesis that probiotic supplementation in the older adults may negatively affect inflammaging, a characteristic of chronic low-grade inflammatory status in older adults, via the modulation of microbial composition.

However, further studies are required to assess whether the probiotic supplementation affects immunological mechanisms. The findings of the present study suggest that interaction between the gut microbiota and the central nervous system may underlie the improvements in cognitive and cerebral functioning upon probiotic supplementation and explain the concomitant changes in peripheral neuromodulators.

BDNF, a neurotrophic factor vital for synaptic formation, plasticity, and neuroimmune responses, has long been studied to assess its critical role in learning, memory formation, and affective disorders 41 , Previously, the influence of diet and nutrition on BDNF has been explored; and serum BDNF has been shown to be increased in response to dietary supplements in humans.

For example, a 1-week of oral consumption of α-linolenic acid increased the level of serum BDNF in healthy young adults Also, a 6-week supplementation with natural extracts rich in flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds enhanced serum BDNF levels in physically active men In the present study, it was notable that the beneficial impact of a week probiotic intervention on serum BDNF levels was evident in older population.

More recently, BDNF has emerged as a pivotal link in the gut—brain axis 41 , Several studies demonstrated that gut dysbiosis correlates with reduced expression of BDNF, which alters cognitive function and triggers anxiety-like behavior in germ-free animals 45 , 46 , supporting a role of BDNF in the gut—brain axis.

Interestingly, we observed that the relative abundance of significantly shifted gut microbes correlated with the level of serum BDNF in the probiotics group only. This indicates that administration of probiotics may affect the interaction between the gut microbiome and the host BDNF, thereby improving brain functions.

Overall, the evidence from this study shows that the shifts in microbial community mirrored changes in the cognitive and mental scores.

Several mechanisms could explain the interaction between changes in abundance of commensal bacteria and brain function observed in the probiotics group. First, it is plausible that the production of neurotransmitters, such as γ-Aminobutyric acid GABA , dopamine, acetylcholine, serotonin, by commensal bacteria, and neurochemicals including BDNF, may directly or indirectly modulate cognition and mood status As shown in a previous study, probiotic administration influences GABA receptor throughout the brain, with reduced stress-induced anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in rodents Moreover, inflammation-mediated pathways might initiate the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration via the microbiota—gut—brain axis.

With respect to inflammaging during normal aging, chronic low-grade inflammation in older adults may affect neuroinflammation by modulating glial cells, which stimulates cognitive impairment One of the routes to translate systemic inflammatory signals into the brain is stimulation of microglia by peripheral cytokines that cross the blood—brain barrier, leading to a proinflammatory status in the brain and dysregulation of neurological processes Additionally, the immunomodulatory roles of circulating immune cells in neuroplasticity also affect the expression of BDNF 49 , Therefore, it is plausible that mitigation of inflammaging in older adults with probiotic intervention might positively impact on cognitive and mental functions via the modulation of BDNF signaling.

Further studies are needed to clearly demonstrate the effect of probiotics on inflammatory status and gut microbiome at the functional level. The present study is not without limitations. First, direct evidence of improvement in peripheral and cerebral inflammation by probiotic consumption is lacking, which might be the crucial interface linking the gut—brain axis in the present study.

Therefore, further mechanistic studies might be needed to elucidate the role of probiotic supplementation by finding biomarkers to link the axis. Additionally, although our results indicated that the benefit of 3 months duration of probiotic intervention was evident, there were no significant changes in some of the cognitive functions in the neuropsychological assessment battery in which we assume that the study duration was not enough to monitor the improvements.

Therefore, further studies are required with a longer period of intervention. Despite these limitations, this is the first study examining the effects of probiotic supplementation on brain functions in community-dwelling older adults.

In conclusion, our study showed that probiotic supplementation is beneficial for improving cognitive and mental health in community-dwelling healthy older adults with changes in gut microbial composition.

These results provide evidence that probiotics have health-promoting properties as part of a healthy diet in the general population of independently living older adults. designed the research; C. conducted the research; C. performed bioinformatic and statistical analyses and analyzed the data; W.

conducted the statistical analysis; and C. and D. wrote the manuscript. The authors thank S. for his assistance in recruitment of participants; D. had primary responsibility for final content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. This research was funded by the National Research Foundation of Korea NRFS1A5A2A , the Promoting Regional specialized Industry R , the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy MOTIE , and Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology KIAT , Republic of Korea.

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Guarner F , Malagelada JR. Gut flora in health and disease. Rooks MG , Garrett WS. Gut microbiota, metabolites and host immunity. Nat Rev Immunol. Gut microbiota and aging. Vaiserman AM , Koliada AK , Marotta F.

Gut microbiota: a player in aging and a target for anti-aging intervention. Ageing Res Rev. Clark RI , Walker DW. Role of gut microbiota in aging-related health decline: insights from invertebrate models. Cell Mol Life Sci. Grenham S , Clarke G , Cryan JF , Dinan TG.

Brain-gut-microbe communication in health and disease. Front Physiol. Sharon G , Sampson TR , Geschwind DH , Mazmanian SK. The central nervous system and the gut microbiome. Sandhu KV , Sherwin E , Schellekens H , Stanton C , Dinan TG , Cryan JF. Feeding the microbiota-gut-brain axis: diet, microbiome, and neuropsychiatry.

Transl Res. Foster JA , McVey Neufeld KA. Gut-brain axis: how the microbiome influences anxiety and depression. Trends Neurosci. Seo D-O , Holtzman DM. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci.

Forsythe P , Bienenstock J , Kunze WA. Vagal pathways for microbiome-brain-gut axis communication. Adv Exp Med Biol. Dinan TG , Cryan JF. The microbiome-gut-brain axis in health and disease.

Gastroenterol Clin North Am. Sun Y , Baptista LC , Roberts LM , et al. The gut microbiome as a therapeutic target for cognitive impairment. Studies show that moderate-intensity exercise is associated with better mood. For the most benefit, opt for anaerobic exercises like interval training, weight lifting, Pilates, or yoga.

A review shows that meditation provides a wealth of positive benefits for your mood. It increases self-compassion and results in brain changes in regions related to emotion regulation while decreasing blood pressure, heart rate, and cortisol—a hormone known to influence stress.

Laughter is the best medicine. And science backs that up: laughing has in impact on mental health by enhancing positive emotion, stimulating cognition, reducing stress, promoting positive coping skils, and improving interpersonal relationships. Be social. Getting together with friends can make a world difference on your mood.

Probiotics can do so much more than keep your digestion on track. A wealth of emerging evidence shows that probiotics also play a significant role in mental health. This article is for informational purposes only. This article is not, nor is it intended to be, a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment and should never be relied upon for specific medical advice.

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Resources Living a Kyo-Life Healthy Living Guides Podcasts FAQs. KyoLife Improve Your Mood with Probiotics. Share Online.

Share this Post ×. Printer Friendly. The Gut-Brain Axis The gut and the brain are connected. Here are some lifestyle tips that can also have a big impact: Exercise.

Almeida DM. Charting adult development through historically changing daily stress processes. American Psychologist. Padhy SK. J Neurosci Rural Pract. Breit S. Vagus Nerve as Modulator of the Brain—Gut Axis in Psychiatric and Inflammatory Disorders.

Frontiers in Psychiatry. Chang L. Brain—gut—microbiota axis in depression: A historical overview and future directions. Brain Research Bulletin. Wang H.

Effect of Probiotics on Central Nervous System Functions in Animals and Humans: A Systematic Review. J Neurogastroenterol Motil.

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