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Vegan nutrition facts

Vegan nutrition facts

menu icon. We do Vegan-friendly desserts research so you can find nutritio products racts your health Vegan nutrition facts wellness. These are foods Isotonic drink reviews with this nutrient and supplements. What Is Veganism, and What Do Vegans Eat? The Vegan Diet: A Complete Guide for Beginners. You can easily meet your vitamin B12 needs with a daily supplement or fortified foods, such as vitamin Bfortified breakfast cereals, plant milks, and nutritional yeast. Best-Selling Vegan Products:. Vegan nutrition facts

We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this faxts, we nutriion earn a small nufrition. Medical News Today Kidney bean fiber content shows you brands and products that we stand behind.

A vegan or plant-based diet excludes all animal products, including meat, dairy, and eggs. Nutritoin benefits can fact reducing Isotonic drink reviews facfs of Vegaan diseases and supporting weight loss.

Increasing untrition of Isotonic drink reviews are moving toward VVegan diets due to health, animal welfare, or environmental concerns. Vegan diets tend to be rich in nutrients and low in saturated fats.

Nutdition suggests that nutritioj diet Vegan nutrition facts nutition heart health, protect against facys, and lower the risk of type 2 diabetes.

However, vacts eating only plant-based hutrition need to be nutritiion aware of how to obtain certain nutrients, including ironnutritiknnutritio vitamin Bthat usually come mutrition an omnivorous diet. In this nutritiin, we take a close look at the vegan diet, including nutdition health benefits and nurrition, as well as important things to consider Healthy weight loss habits trying it out.

We also provide recipe ideas and tips Gut health and mental health following a vegan diet. A vegan diet involves eating only foods Liver support supplements plants.

Those who follow this diet avoid all animal products, including meat, Body toning and posture improvement, and eggs. Some people also Cellular autophagy eating honey.

For some, being vegan nutritiion a dietary choice, Isotonic drink reviews for others, it is a lifestyle choice. People ntrition choose nutrotion live a vegan lifestyle facrs also avoid nutritioh, soaps, and other products that use Cranberry body scrub recipes contain parts of animals, such as Paleo diet snacks and animal fur.

Some adopt this lifestyle for its environmental benefits as a sustainable diet. Vegan diets tend to include plenty of fruits, Fat burning exercises, beans, nuts, and seeds. Eating a variety of these Peanut butter benefits will provide a wide range of nuteition vitamins, minerals, healthful nutriitonand protein.

Vegxn following this diet should, however, take faccts to get key nutrients that people usually consume Vegan nutrition facts animal products. These nutrients include iron, protein, calcium, vitamin B, and vitamin D. The main difference between vegetarians and vegans nutfition that although vegetarians do not eat meat including cows, pigs, chicken, and fish ntrition, they consume racts products, favts, or both.

The vegan diet excludes all products with animal-based ingredients. The vegan diet is Resveratrol and sleep quality restrictive, so people Vegan dairy-free need to think more about where their nutrients are coming from to ensure that they meet nutfition daily dietary requirements.

Fqcts more about vegan vs. vegetarian diets here. Vegan diets can provide all of the nutrients Replenish plant-based ingredients a person needs, and they Vegn eliminate some of the possible risks that research has associated with nutritiin animal fats.

Research has linked the vegan diet with a range of health nutrtiion, including those below. A large scale study has Vegan nutrition facts a facgs intake of plant-based foods and Diabetic retinopathy risk reduction intake of animal foods with a facfs risk of heart disease and death in adults.

Animal Cognitive performance improvement — including Isotonic drink reviews, cheese, and facgs — are the main fxcts sources of saturated fats. According Sports nutrition for runners the American Heart Association AHAeating nutritkon that contain these fats raises cholesterol Vehan.

High levels of Vegan nutrition facts Vegsn the risk of heart disease and stroke. Plant foods are also high in fiberwhich the AHA link with better heart health. Animal products contain very little or no fiber, while plant-based vegetables and grains are the best sources. In addition, people on a vegan diet often take in fewer calories than those on a standard Western diet.

A moderate calorie intake can lead to a lower body mass index BMI and a reduced risk of obesitya major risk factor for heart disease. This health benefit may be due to the fact that plant foods are high in fiber, vitamins, and phytochemicals — biologically active compounds in plants — that protect against cancers.

People on a vegan diet tend to have a lower body mass index BMI than those following other diets. The researchers behind a study reported that vegan diets were more effective for weight loss than omnivorous, semi-vegetarian, and pesco-vegetarian diets, as well as being better for providing macronutrients.

Many animal foods are high in fat and calories, so replacing these with low calorie plant-based foods can help people manage their weight. It is important to note, though, that eating lots of processed or high fat plant-based foods — which some people refer to as a junk food vegan diet — can lead to unhealthful weight gain.

Read more about the vegan diet and weight loss here. According to a large reviewfollowing a plant-based diet can reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. The research linked this effect with eating healthful plant-based foods, including fruits, vegetables, whole grainsnuts, and legumes.

For more science-backed resources on nutrition, visit our dedicated hub. A vegan diet removes some sources of nutrients from the diet, so people need to plan their meals carefully to avoid nutritional deficiencies.

People may wish to talk to a doctor or dietitian ahead of adopting a vegan diet, especially if they have existing health conditions. A vegan diet may be low in specific nutrients.

Certain specialized foods and dietary supplements can help people meet their daily requirements. People can choose from a variety of brands online. The change from an unrestricted diet can seem daunting, but there are many simple, tasty, and nutritious ways to pack a vegan diet with key vitamins and minerals.

Instead of cow milk, people can use plant-based alternatives. Manufacturers often enrich them with vitamins and minerals. People can also buy plant-based cheeses, yogurts, and butters or make their own.

Read about dairy alternatives here. Some people may have concerns about meeting their protein needs on a vegan diet, but many plant foods are excellent sources of protein.

Read about the best plant-based sources of protein. Soy products — such as tofutempeh, and seitan — provide protein and also add a meat-like texture to many dishes. Learn more about meat substitutes here.

It may take a little experimentation, but most people will be able to find a vegan meal plan to suit their taste. Vegan diets are growing in popularity.

A vegan diet can offer many health benefits, including better heart health, weight loss, and a reduced risk of chronic diseases. People who wish to adopt a vegan diet will need to plan their meals carefully to ensure that they are getting enough key nutrients to avoid deficiencies.

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The study of twins found that those…. Researchers report that both the vegan and ketogenic diets can provide quick, healthy benefits to a person's immune system, although the two diets…. Salmon contains unique compounds that are associated with cardiometabolic health indicators, such as reduced cholesterol, a nutrimetabolomics study….

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Medical News Today. Health Conditions Health Products Discover Tools Connect. What to know about vegan diets. Medically reviewed by Katherine Marengo LDN, R.

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: Vegan nutrition facts

Nutrition and the Vegan Diet » I LOVE VEGAN

Reasons for following a vegetarian diet vary but include health benefits. Following a vegetarian diet may reduce the risk of heart disease, diabetes and some cancers.

But some vegetarian diets may rely too heavily on processed foods with too many calories, and too much sugar, fat and salt. These diets may not include enough fruits, vegetables, whole grains and nutrient-rich foods. With planning, a vegetarian diet can meet the needs of people of all ages, as well as people who are pregnant or breastfeeding.

Some people follow a diet that is mostly plant-based, but they still eat meat, dairy, eggs, poultry and fish on occasion or in small quantities. This is sometimes called a flexitarian diet. To get the most out of a vegetarian diet, choose a variety of healthy plant-based foods. These include whole fruits and vegetables and whole grains.

Nuts and legumes, such as lentils, beans and peanuts, also are considered healthy plant-based foods. At the same time, cut back on less healthy choices. These include sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit juices and refined grains.

A registered dietitian can help you create a vegetarian plan that's right for you. Keep in mind that the more foods you cut out of your diet, the harder it can be to get all the nutrients you need. A vegan diet, for example, cuts out natural food sources of vitamin B, as well as milk products, which are good sources of calcium.

To be sure that your diet provides what your body needs, pay special attention to the following nutrients:. Calcium helps build and maintain strong teeth and bones. Milk and dairy foods are highest in calcium.

Dark green vegetables are good plant sources if you eat enough of them. Examples include turnip and collard greens, kale and broccoli. Other options include calcium-enriched and fortified products. Calcium is added to some juices, cereals, soy milk, soy yogurt and tofu.

Vitamin D also plays an important role in bone health. Vitamin D is added to cow's milk, some brands of soy and rice milk, and some cereals and margarines.

Be sure to check food labels. People who don't eat enough fortified foods and have limited sun exposure may want to talk with a health care provider about vitamin D supplements. Plant-derived vitamin D supplements are available. Vitamin B is necessary to produce red blood cells and prevent anemia.

Anemia a condition in which the body doesn't have enough healthy red blood cells to carry oxygen to all parts of the body. Vitamin B is found almost exclusively in animal products, so it can be difficult to get enough B on a vegan diet. Vitamin B deficiency may go undetected in people who eat a vegan diet.

This is because the vegan diet is rich in a vitamin called folate that can mask vitamin B deficiency. For this reason, it's important for vegans to consider vitamin supplements, vitamin-enriched cereals and fortified soy products. Protein helps keep skin, bones, muscles and organs healthy.

Eggs and dairy products are good sources, and you don't need to eat large amounts to meet your protein needs. Eating a variety of plant-based foods throughout the day also can provide enough protein. Plant sources include soy products and meat substitutes, legumes, lentils, nuts, seeds, and whole grains.

Omega-3 fatty acids are found in fish, canola oil, soy oil, walnuts, ground flaxseed and soybeans. Vegetarian diets that do not include fish may be low in two types of omega-3 fatty acids called DHA and EPA. Some evidence suggests that taking in EPA and DHA omega-3 fatty acids may lower the risk for heart disease.

Also, these two omega-3s may be important during pregnancy for fetal development. Research on other health effects of EPA and DHA varies. Vegetarians who do not eat fish or include sources of omega-3 fatty acids in their diet may consider adding fortified products to their diet.

Iron is important to red blood cells. Dried beans and peas, lentils, enriched cereals, whole-grain products, dark leafy green vegetables, and dried fruit are sources of iron. But the body doesn't absorb iron from plant sources as easily as animal sources.

So the recommended intake of iron for vegetarians is almost double that recommended for nonvegetarians. To help your body absorb iron from plants, eat foods rich in vitamin C at the same time as you're eating iron-containing foods. Vitamin C-rich foods include peppers, strawberries, citrus fruits, tomatoes, cabbage and broccoli.

Like iron, zinc is not as easily absorbed from plant sources as it is from animal products. Fish, including crab and shrimp, are sources of zinc for pescatarians. Cheese and yogurt are sources of zinc if you eat dairy products.

Plant sources include whole grains, soy products, lentils, beans, nuts and wheat germ. Zinc helps the body make proteins and grow cells. Research on zinc in the diet has found that it supports the immune system and vision, specifically.

Thyroid hormones are made partly of iodine. Thyroid hormones help control the body's metabolism and play an important role in muscle growth. Iodine can easily be added to food by using iodized salt.

Seafood and dairy also are sources of iodine. Tongue scraping can boost the ability of the good bacteria in our mouth to take advantage of the nitrates in greens to improve our cardiovascular health. A combination of low calcium intake and low vitamin D exposure may explain higher bone fracture rates in British vegans.

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People who eat a plant-based diet have a lower risk of dying from heart disease when compared to non-vegetarians. Plant-based diets have been proven to prevent and reverse heart disease, improve cholesterol, and lower blood pressure.

Plant-based diets prevent, manage, and reverse type 2 diabetes. Plant-based diets lead to weight loss , even without exercise or calorie counting. Replacing high-fat foods with fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes naturally reduces calorie intake.

Avoiding animal products and high-fat foods and eating plant-based foods can lower the risk of developing certain types of cancer. A plant-based diet avoids these foods and is rich in antioxidants, folate, and vitamin E, which may offer a protective effect.

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Food for Life classes teach you how to improve your health with a plant-based diet. Find a Class. Plant-Based Diets The Power of a Plant-Based Diet for Good Health.

The vegan diet According to research conducted by Melina et al. Dietary intake and status of n—3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in a population of fish-eating and non-fish-eating meat-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans and the precursor-product ratio of α-linolenic acid to long-chain n—3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: results from the EPIC-Norfolk cohort. Grewal, AK, Singh, TG, Sharma, D, Sharma, V, Singh, M, Rahman, MH, et al. It's important to note that an adequate intake of vitamin D is essential for proper calcium absorption. Rose, S, and Strombom, A. Vegan Cuisine Guide: Plant-Based Foods Worldwide READ MORE.
Nutrition and the Vegan Diet

Heart Disease People who eat a plant-based diet have a lower risk of dying from heart disease when compared to non-vegetarians. Diabetes Plant-based diets prevent, manage, and reverse type 2 diabetes.

Weight Loss Plant-based diets lead to weight loss , even without exercise or calorie counting. Cancer Avoiding animal products and high-fat foods and eating plant-based foods can lower the risk of developing certain types of cancer. Resource Food for Life Helping people regain their health through food.

Resource Vegan Starter Kit. Resource Vegan Nutrition for Athletes A Plant-Based Diet Is an Optimal Sports Diet. Resource Pregnancy A Vegan Diet During Pregnancy. Resource Nutrition for Kids Plant-Based Diets for Infants, Children, and Teens.

Resource Universal Meals: Food Everyone Can Enjoy Universal Meals makes it easy to offer delicious recipes that work for almost every type of diet. Join the Kickstart Prevention starts today. Join the Day Vegan Kickstart. Get Healthy With Good Nutrition Food for Life classes teach you how to improve your health with a plant-based diet.

Microorganisms in the gut metabolize a variety of dietary substrates, which can have an impact on cardiovascular health The trimethylamine N-oxide TMAO pathway is an example. Choline and L-carnitine, compounds derived mainly from animal-based foods such as red meat, poultry, and fish, are broken down by microbes in the gut to produce trimethylamine TMA , which is further broken down in the liver to form TMAO.

Associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, TMAO is believed to affect heart health through cholesterol and sterol metabolism, inflammation, thrombotic, and atherosclerotic pathways As a recent study did not find an association between TMAO and dietary factors, it is possible that the association of animal foods with heart disease risk through the TMAO pathway is modified by eating foods rich in TMAO precursors and by gut microbial composition Certain phytochemicals e.

Plant-based diets also differ from animal-based diets in several other microbiota-dependent metabolic pathways, including increased metabolism of dietary fiber and polyphenols, and decreased metabolism of bile acids and amino acids, which may mediate links to cardiovascular disease.

To elucidate the likely complex pathways by which diet interacts with the intestinal microbial environment to influence cardiovascular health, larger studies with longer follow-up and repeated assessment of diet and microbiome are needed.

There are also limitations and risks associated with following a vegan diet for cardiovascular health, especially if the diet is poorly balanced, as vegans may have lower amounts of dietary nutrients such as eicosapentaenoic acid EPA and docosahexaenoic acid DHA , selenium, zinc, iodine, iron, calcium and vitamin B12, vitamin D, compared to non-vegans, which can lead to adverse cardiovascular effects 68 , Van Winckel et al.

stress that it is important to understand that both an unhealthy diet and a vegan diet can induce chronic inflammation, if the vegan diet contains insufficient amounts of nutrients and omega-3 fatty acids One of the many issues in the context of vitamin B12 deficiency in a vegan diet is the risk of leading to hyperhomocysteinemia.

As a result of reduced vascular elasticity and altered homeostasis, elevated levels of homocysteine induce vascular endothelial impairment. This is an important risk factor for CVD It is also worth mentioning the problem of consuming large amounts of processed plant products in a vegan diet, meat substitutes and dairy substitutes, which can be high in sugars, salt, and trans fatty acids 71 , Most short-term studies on vegan diets do not provide accurate data on long-term effects on cardiovascular health, based mainly on changes in biomarkers.

Following a vegan diet also brings about a number of health benefits in terms of cardiovascular disease, but is also associated with the risk of nutrient deficiencies. It seems that a well-balanced vegan diet, rich in high-quality plant-based foods such as whole grains, fruits, vegetables and nuts, based on unprocessed products, together with supplementation for example, an algae-based DHA supplement in addition to regular consumption of sources of ALA and vitamin B12, vitamin D may be considered a suitable route to the prevention of cardiovascular disease, but more research on this issue is needed 49 , Although it requires more research and a personalized diet approach, a vegan diet may not only benefit heart health, but may also have the potential to regulate blood glucose levels and manage diabetes mellitus.

A chronic metabolic disorder called diabetes mellitus is characterised by persistently high blood glucose levels, insulin resistance, and insufficient amounts of insulin compared to physiological requirements.

Just over half a billion people are living with diabetes worldwide which means that over Because a healthful, well-planned vegan diet may be inclusive of entirely whole plant foods such as fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, nuts, and seeds, which are excellent sources of dietary fiber, it naturally contains a lot of fiber 1.

Soluble dietary fiber can improve glycaemic control by delaying the process by which food leaves the stomach, resulting in slower glucose uptake and absorption It is well established that a vegan diet can tackle important pathophysiological processes related to beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance.

A week randomized controlled experiment with 75 overweight adults, half of whom followed a vegan diet, and the other half a control diet, illustrates this. The vegan group demonstrated a notable improvement in beta cell function and fasting insulin sensitivity compared to the control group.

These two elements are recognized to be the main pathophysiological mechanisms driving type 2 diabetes Another study has shown that fiber helps delay the absorption of glucose in the gastrointestinal tract, which causes blood glucose levels to gradually rise.

This result may reduce the likelihood of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia A study by Chester et al. According to the study, the weight loss effect of the vegan diet may account for a sizable amount of its effects on hemoglobin A1C levels, a measure of blood glucose control over time.

A low-fat vegan diet was found to significantly improve glycaemic control in a week randomized clinical trial 79 , which included people with type 2 diabetes. In particular, the study found that the A1C readings in the vegan group dropped noticeably more than those of the other diet group.

In a week randomized clinical trial by Lee et al. Both diets led to lower HbA1c levels, but glycaemic control was better with the vegan diet 0. Quercetin can act as a natural antidepressant by inhibiting the activity of monoamine oxidase MAO , an enzyme that breaks down mood-regulating neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine 82 , resulting in higher levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain This impact might reduce the signs and symptoms of anxiety and despair.

Nutrition plays an increasingly important role in maintaining optimal brain function as people age It is defined by a steady deterioration in cognitive abilities, including memory, reasoning, and behavior.

Meat-based dietary patterns appear to be positively correlated with biomarkers of low-grade inflammation, whereas vegetable- and fruit-based diets are inversely correlated Studies providing data on biomarkers of inflammation in vegans, however, are few and inconsistent.

Menzel et al. found no significant differences in any of the seven inflammatory biomarkers measured. Participants who followed a vegan diet for more than 4.

This may suggest that diet length may be an important factor in reducing systemic inflammation. Šebeková et al. also found that plasma CRP levels were not significantly different between vegans and omnivores In the other hand, Franco de Moreaes et al.

Lastly, a recent meta-analysis showed that vegans have lower CRP levels than omnivores With the popularity of veganism rising rapidly, there is an increased need for scientific study to determine how a vegan diet affects human health, particularly in relation to cognitive functioning.

A low-risk lifestyle adjustment that can help maintain cognitive function and prevent cognitive ageing is to switch to a vegan diet Numerous health problems have been associated with adulthood and ageing, and the severity of these problems depends on various circumstances.

A study by Rodrigues et al. found that ageing is related to a loss of bone mass, increasing the incidence of fractures with age Osteoporosis is a degenerative skeletal condition that can increase the susceptibility of a person to fractures, especially in the hip, spine, and wrist Key characteristics of osteoporosis include low bone mass and decreased bone mineral density.

The health of an adult is greatly influenced by its diet, which is one of the key determinants. A vegan diet has some consequences, according to several studies conducted in the context of food. Bone health is one example. Bone health problems, which often develop with age, are substantially more common in women than in men In general, high bone mineral density is preferred since it has a negative correlation with the risk of fragility fractures, especially in female adults.

In other words, the lower the risk of fractures caused by decreased bone strength, the higher the concentration of bone mineral Adopting a vegan diet can raise concerns about inadequate nutrient intake, which can eventually lead to lower bone mineral density BMD Certain nutrients, such as vitamin B12, vitamin D, calcium, and omega-3 fatty acids, may be insufficient in a vegan diet.

This is so because, as cited by Richter et al. and Menzel et al. Vegans showed lower bone mineral density than omnivores in a variety of bone locations, including the hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine, according to a cross-sectional study conducted by Menzel et al.

Furthermore, compared to omnivores, vegans exhibited lower levels of calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin K. However, the bone turnover markers of the two groups did not show appreciable variations.

The study findings indicated that vegans should consume enough calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin K to maintain strong bones because they may be more susceptible to osteoporosis and bone fractures.

The study also emphasized how crucial nutrient balance is for vegan diets because vegans who consume an unbalanced diet run the risk of depleting many nutrients.

Vitamin D, which is often obtained by exposure to sunlight but can also be found in foods such as fatty fish, egg yolks, and the liver, is crucial for the health of bones The relevance of nutritional practices as a modifiable factor that affects bone mineral density has been acknowledged Sarcopenia and frailty syndrome are debilitating conditions primarily associated with aging-related changes in body composition, characterized by low muscle mass and strength.

These conditions ultimately lead to an increased risk of adverse health outcomes such as disability, hospitalization, or death 6 , This, in the face of an ever-increasing number of elderly people, is becoming a serious public health problem 77 , A well-planned diet is essential for older people.

Although the evidence base for the role of dietary protein in maintaining good muscle health in older age is strong, the importance of protein sources is an ongoing subject of research — With the increasing number of people adopting flexitarian, vegetarian, and vegan diets, scientists are highlighting the need to pay attention to the dietary habits of older people to prevent sarcopenia and frailty syndrome.

The results of the study conducted by Sotos-Prieto et al. indicate that a healthful plant-based diet was associated with lower risk of frailty whereas an unhealthful plant-based diet was associated with higher risk Adequate consumption of high-quality dietary protein combined with regular physical activity is crucial to the prevention of the aforementioned conditions among older people Furthermore, increasing portion sizes could be helpful in improving the intake of protein and essential amino acids EAAs to address the challenge of the lower anabolic properties of plant-based foods and proteins.

Attention should be paid to the intake of branched chain amino acids BCAAs , especially leucine, isoleucine, and valine Ingestion of dietary protein induces hyperaminoacidemia, promoting muscle protein synthesis and inhibiting muscle protein breakdown through various pathways However, scientific opinions on the use of a vegan diet among older individuals and its impact on the development of sarcopenia are highly divided.

According to studies by Hengeveld et al. and Tieland et al. According to Domić et al. Additionally, researchers point out that several observational studies have shown a favorable correlation between animal-based protein and muscle mass and strength, indicating that a vegan diet might have negative effects on muscle mass and strength 6.

The study conducted by Maroto-Rodriguez et al. provides intriguing results and a fresh perspective on the dietary habits of seniors. According to the researchers, diets with a high consumption of plant-derived foods and a lower consumption of animal-derived foods could potentially reduce the risk of frailty in elderly individuals.

The study attributes positive health outcomes to the adoption of a plant-based diet, characterized by a significant intake of plant products and a lower intake of animal products. Unlike other vegetarian diets, a plant-based diet places emphasis on the quality of plant-based items.

It associates the favorable impact of healthy plant-derived foods such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and nuts with improved health among individuals over 65, in contrast to unhealthy plant-derived products like refined grains, sugary beverages, and animal-based foods The authors of the study suggest that the protective effect of a plant-based diet against frailty could be linked to the provision of essential nutrients.

They highlight the antioxidant effects of vitamins C and E, carotenoids, and selenium derived from fruits and vegetables. These elements may protect against sarcopenia by reducing the exposure of muscle fibers to oxidative stress.

However, biomarkers of selenium and zinc were lower in vegans, confirming that a sufficient supply of these trace elements is more difficult to achieve when following a plant-based diet Additionally, the inclusion of legume and nuts protein might help prevent sarcopenia , The authors also point out the potential anti-inflammatory effects of fruits, olive oil, unsaturated fatty acids, nuts, or coffee, which may help mitigate the low-grade chronic inflammation associated with frailty , Similar results are presented by a Chinese study conducted among nearly 4, participants Researchers have shown that a vegan diet is linked to a reduced risk of frailty in men and older adults who lead a healthy lifestyle.

More research is required to establish a vegan diet as a recommended dietary approach to prevent and minimize frailty among older adults. Furthermore, it should be considered to incorporate dietary interventions along with lifestyle changes to promote successful ageing, a factor that could also be significant for women Some nutrients need to be taken special into account when following a vegan diet.

According to a position document of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics AND , a well-planned vegan diet is nutritious and can have health benefits for the prevention and treatment of various diseases.

It also highlights the fact that a vegan diet should be carefully planned to ensure optimal nutritional intake.

The article also highlights the particular nutrients in vegan diets that must be taken into account, such as protein, vitamin B12, vitamin D, calcium, iron, and omega-3 fatty acids 1 , Numerous research efforts have aimed to evaluate the capacity of a vegan diet regimen to meet the appropriate protein requirements.

According to a study conducted by Alles et al. Conversely, despite a lower average protein intake in vegan diet, all studies reported in the article of Neufingerl et al. None of the 64 studies reported protein intake below the acceptable macronutrient distribution range AMDR for any dietary pattern However, it should be noted that expert opinion is divided on the protein content of plant-based diets.

Therefore, it is essential for vegans to ensure that they get an adequate amount of proteins in their diet. Protein quality is influenced by the effectiveness of digestion and the presence of crucial amino acids. Another recommendation is to eat a variety of foods as amino acid limitation is not as serious In particular, certain vegetable proteins, such as soy, exhibit enhanced digestibility, distinguishing them from the typical digestibility observed in many other plant-based foods.

This concept is in alignment with the principles of the Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score DIAAS , a widely used measure to assess protein quality 3.

As Mariotti and Gardner highlighted, the distribution of amino acids in plant-based foods often displays a less optimal profile compared to animal-derived foods.

However, it should be noted that even when adhering to a vegan diet characterised by limited diversity, achieving a considerable intake of total protein remains attainable.

This can be accomplished by consuming significant amounts of plant protein foods, such as soybeans, tofu, legumes, nuts, seeds In the context of a vegan diet, the fulfilment of protein requirements is ensured through the complementary consumption of legumes and cereals, allowing individuals to obtain a comprehensive array of essential amino acids that are of paramount importance for human nutrition This is especially noteworthy when considering that the Recommended Dietary Allowance RDA for protein intake is commonly set at 0.

Advancements in modern food technology have played a crucial role in producing plant-based food products that mimic the attributes of animal-derived options. In particular, the use of soy and its derivatives has emerged as a significant strategy, allowing the achievement of satisfactory protein intake that could otherwise be difficult to achieve Currently, vegans commonly include substantial amounts of legumes in their dietary patterns, a protein source that has gained attention as a potential preventive factor against ailments such as stomach, prostate, and colon cancer.

Furthermore, the consumption of legumes demonstrates potential cardioprotective effects, evident through the reduction in serum lipids and lipoproteins circulating, including total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein LDL and triglycerides 5.

Deficiencies in specific vitamins, particularly vitamin B12is significant concerns in the context of a vegan diet. Vitamin B12, a water-soluble nutrient found primarily in animal-derived foods, plays a vital role in hematopoiesis and nervous system function 5 , However, due to the absence of animal products, getting sufficient vitamin B12 is a challenge for vegans, leading to potentially severe deficiencies.

These deficiencies can be the result of impaired absorption or inadequate intake of this essential nutrient, contributing to conditions such as megaloblastic anemia and degenerative disorders 5 , In particular, neurological symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency include numbness and tingling of the hands and feet, decreased sensation, difficulty walking, loss of control of the bowel and bladder, memory loss, dementia, depression, general weakness, and even psychosis.

As an exclusive animal-derived nutrient, vitamin B12 is absent in vegan diets, necessitating supplementation or fortified plant-based alternatives such as plant milk, cereals, and nutritional yeast 14 , Although the established daily recommended dietary allowance for adults in the United States is 2.

Therefore, regular monitoring of vitamin B12 levels and adaptive supplementation strategies become imperative to maintain optimal health 4. Vitamin D, classified as a fat-soluble micronutrient, plays a central role in promoting calcium absorption and maintaining optimal bone health Its synthesis takes place on the human skin when exposed to sunlight.

According to research conducted by Melina et al. Furthermore, a study by Allès et al. indicated that vegans tend to consume less vitamin D relative to recommended dietary guidelines 3.

In particular, Menzel et al. underscore the critical nature of this nutrient, as its deficiency could lead to decreased bone mineral density, increased bone turnover, and an increased risk of premature bone ageing, thus increasing the susceptibility to fractures.

This concern is particularly relevant for vegans, who, due to their exclusion of animal-derived foods, face an increased risk of inadequate vitamin D supply, which could lead to adverse effects on bone health Sources of vitamin D include fortified breakfast cereals and non-dairy milk substitutes such as oat, almond and rice beverages.

When exposure to the sun and fortified food intake are insufficient to meet dietary requirements, vitamin D supplementation is recommended for individuals of all ages 5. Omega-3 fatty acids, with a particular focus on alpha-linolenic acid ALA , play an important role in preventing atherosclerosis and improving lipid profiles through the reduction of inflammation and the mitigation of oxidative stress.

ALA, which is an essential fatty acid, acts as a precursor for the synthesis of EPA and DHA , but only a small portion is converted to longer-chain fatty acids.

Individuals who follow a vegan diet and include no marine foods in their diet will consume ALA because of its wide distribution in plant-sourced foods However, literature suggests there is individual variation in conversion rate of fatty acids, influenced by genetics and dietary habits, including the presence of other fatty acids in the diet.

Vegan may be more efficient at n-3 conversion, but this has not been confirmed According to Menzel et al. Their study revealed reduced plasma levels of n-3 fatty acids in vegans ALA sources, such as vegetable oils, cereals, nuts such as walnuts and chia seeds, as well as plant-derived oils such as rapeseed, linseed, canola, and hemp should be included in the well-balanced vegan diet , Optimizing the intake of omega-3 fatty acids is crucial for those following a vegan diet 7 as the Adequate Intake AI guidelines for n-3 fatty acids suggest a daily intake of 1.

Vegans generally demonstrate lower calcium intake compared to individuals who follow alternative diet patterns such as lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets 52 , However, though various plant-based sources offer substantial calcium content, its absorption is negatively influenced by compounds such as oxalates, phytates, and fiber present in vegetables 5.

To improve calcium intake, there are a number of interventions that can be implemented. These include promoting the consumption of foods naturally high in calcium, using food processing techniques that could improve calcium content or bioavailability, staple food fortification, and biofortification to produce higher calcium-containing crops Noteworthy calcium-rich plant foods include green leafy vegetables, tofu, tahini, as well as fortified options such as cereals, soy, rice, and nut and fruit beverages.

Optimal absorption is observed in low-oxalate vegetables, such as broccoli and kale 5. In a comparative study involving various dietary groups, including meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans, a noticeable increase in fracture rates was observed among vegan participants.

This trend appeared to be associated with a significantly lower average calcium intake within the vegan group The study by Menzel et al. offers information on the impact of transitioning from an omnivorous diet to a vegan diet, revealing a reduction in calcium excretion indicative of dietary changes.

The study effectively employed h urine samples to accurately assess mineral statuses, unveiling a decrease in calcium excretion among vegans compared to omnivores. This variation in excretion is probably attributed to differences in dietary calcium intake, which is reflected in urinary calcium concentrations Among vegans, decreased plasma zinc levels can contribute to iron deficiency anemia 5.

Poor zinc status is most commonly linked to innate immunity and reduced resistance to infections. Dimitra et al. conducted a systematic review that revealed that vegans have the lowest zinc intake compared to groups following various diet habits Furthermore, a study carried out by Allès et al.

showcased notable insufficiency of zinc among vegans 3. Zinc serves as a facilitator in iron metabolism and is less readily absorbed from plant-derived sources compared to animal products, which typically contribute about half of the zinc intake.

Plant-based sources rich in zinc include wholemeal bread, peas, corn, nuts, carrots, whole grains, wheat germs, soybeans, cabbage, radish, watercress, and legumes 5 , Vegans are advised to consume these foods in sufficient amounts to prevent zinc deficiency. Supplementation and the inclusion of fortified breakfast cereals and foods could be crucial for meeting the nutritional needs of individuals following a vegan diet The WHO has established a classification for zinc bioavailability based on the phytic acid: zinc ratio.

These categories align with recommended zinc intake levels for different gender groups, providing tailored guidance for optimal nutritional adequacy 52 , Vegan dietary patterns are categorized as possessing a moderate degree of zinc availability, given that their predominant reliance is not on unrefined, unfermented, or ungerminated cereal grains, or high-extraction-rate flours Anemia resulting from iron deficiency is more prevalent among vegans than among omnivores Despite vegans having the potential to achieve a daily iron intake similar to non-vegans, their blood iron and ferritin levels tend to be lower, partly due to the less effective absorption of non-haem iron found in plant-derived foods compared to haem iron from animal sources.

This is supported by another study that found higher iron intake among vegans compared to other diets, especially in German vegan women, although the absorption levels did not correspond proportionally to the increased intake 5 , Iron sources include legumes, beans, whole grains, whole cereals, dark-green leafy vegetables, fruits, seeds, and nuts 5.

Enhanced absorption of non-haem iron is facilitated by ascorbic acid, minor alcohol intake, retinol, and carotenes 5 , Marrone et al. emphasized that menopausal women among vegans are particularly prone to iron deficiencies. due to lack of dietary haem iron: 32 milligrams per day for women and 14 milligrams per day for men To combat iron deficiency, fortified foods such as salt, wheat flour, and rice can be incorporated into the diet Haem iron, which is mainly found in products of animal origin, is not available in a vegan diet.

Therefore, people on a vegan diet are not at risk of an excess of this form of iron. Haem iron is a type of iron that is found in haem-containing proteins, such as haemoglobin in the red blood cells and myoglobin in the muscles. It is important to the body because it is necessary for the transport of oxygen from the lungs to tissues and for the storage and transport of oxygen in muscles However, certain types of damage can occur if there is an excess of haem iron or if it is processed incorrectly.

One of the main concerns regarding the harmful effects of haem iron is its role in oxidative stress. This is due to its ability to catalyse the formation of reactive oxygen species. Reactive molecules can cause damage to cells, proteins, lipids and nucleic acid DNA , which can contribute to inflammatory processes Excess haem iron has been positively associated with non-communicable diseases, including colorectal cancer, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular mortality , In a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies by Hunnicutt et al.

haem iron intake was positively associated with the incidence of coronary heart disease The maintenance of the right balance of iron in the body is essential for the maintenance of good health.

It is therefore important that not only those who follow a plant-based diet, but also those who eat meat, monitor their iron levels on a regular basis and adjust their diet to include adequate amounts of iron Most guidelines on vegetarian and vegan diets have provided neutral advice on supplementing certain nutrients with plant sources.

Guidelines such as those from the United Kingdom, Australia, Belgium, Lebanon, Malaysia and Malta indicate that all nutrients can be obtained from a vegetarian diet, including a vegan diet, by combining a variety of foods and consuming an appropriate amount of calories It is recommended to substitute saturated and trans fats with unsaturated fats.

Individuals adopting a vegan diet can encounter a variety of difficulties. Many people fail to maintain a vegan diet in the long term and give up This can be due to both physical and social obstacles that can affect the maintenance of this eating style.

The first barrier may be insufficient knowledge of the nutrients in a vegan diet, the principles of correct meal composition, or the implementation of supplementation Another potential obstacle may be that veganism requires more dedicated time and commitment to cooking and preparing meals compared to meat-based options.

This can be complicated by the perception that such a diet is tasteless and can easily become monotonous Currently, the market offers a variety of meat and dairy substitutes that do not require much time to prepare However, most plant-based meat alternatives are classified as ultra-processed foods UPF Higher UPF intake is associated with an increased risk of obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and even higher mortality In addition, some people become attached to the taste of meat products, which can make it difficult to change eating habits, especially at the initial stage of changing their diet One potential obstacle could be the difficulty of access to high-quality, fresh plant products and their higher cost compared to animal products According to Fehér et al.

Social pressure, especially from family, loved ones, and friends, is generally considered a significant influence on meat consumption.

Some individuals may fear switching to a vegan diet because they expect stigma and ostracism from significant others Adopting a vegan diet can affect family relationships, which may explain why those who choose this diet often experience a lack of understanding or even negative reactions from family members who consume animal products Situations described as one of many factors seem to have an impact on mental health of people following a vegan diet, but scientific views on the impact of plant-based nutrition on mental health are divided.

In the Dobersek et al. Forestell and Nezlek indicated that people who follow a plant-based diet are more likely to be depressed Furthermore, women on a vegan diet are more likely than men to have disordered eating attitudes and practices One potential danger associated with a vegan diet is the risk of malnutrition, which can occur in individuals if the diet is not balanced and does not provide the body with sufficient essential nutrients.

Although our review does not include studies on pregnant and breastfeeding women, it is worth mentioning that this is very important in the context of the impact on the fetus and child.

According to international guidelines, a plant-based diet during pregnancy and lactation requires a high level of awareness to ensure complete intakes of essential key nutrients and vitamin supplements.

Maternal undernutrition can potentially alter fetal growth trajectories by altering placental weight and nutrient transfer capacity, depending on the severity and timing of nutrient deprivation. Maternal malnutrition leading to vitamin B12, vitamin D, calcium and DHA deficiencies during lactation may contribute to low levels of these nutrients in breast milk Despite the barriers mentioned, many people successfully start and follow a vegan diet long-term and reap the health, ethical, and environmental benefits.

Given the current growing interest in plant-based diets among the general population, it is crucial to understand both the barriers, risks, and benefits of such diets among clinicians, policy makers, and the general population A food policy that combines health, sustainability, and affordability can effectively accelerate the promotion of plant-based diets and support the achievement of mitigation targets for potential barriers.

It is believed that a well-planned vegan diet, when combined with a healthy and active lifestyle, is a viable choice for healthy adults, especially those who follow it. This is because chronic diseases are significantly more common than they used to be and various strategies to address these public health challenges are insufficient.

Numerous studies have demonstrated the validity of this claim and any doubts have been attributed to an inadequately designed vegan diet, which is a potential problem with any kind of diet such as omnivorous.

As people age, their caloric needs tend to decrease, while their requirements for specific nutrients may increase. A well-planned vegan diet must include adequate calories and nutrients, as well as the necessary supplements, such as vitamin B12 and vitamin D. To reduce the risk of vitamin deficiencies, fortified foods should be consumed by adults and the general population.

Vegans are strongly encouraged to consult their doctors or dietitians before switching to a vegan diet. Furthermore, the implementation of well-designed vegan diets and lifestyles requires greater awareness, greater social responsibility, and government involvement to ensure the fair cost of vegan food products.

It should be emphasized that the advantages and drawbacks of vegan diets for adults are not fully covered in this review. The precise processes through which vegan diets work in many chronic diseases require further studies. Lastly, future studies should use large sample sizes that are accurately representative of the adult population.

We would like to express our sincere gratitude to Professor Gaëlle Arvisenet, for her valuable guidance and support throughout the research process. Her expertise, insights, and encouragement were invaluable in helping us to complete this work. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

Hargreaves, SM, Rosenfeld, DL, Moreira, AVB, and Zandonadi, RP. Plant-based and vegetarian diets: an overview and definition of these dietary patterns. Eur J Nutr. doi: PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Bundesministerium für Ernährung und Landwirtschaft BMEL.

Deutschland, Wie Es Isst: der BMEL-Ernährungsreport Google Scholar. Allès, B, Baudry, J, Méjean, C, Touvier, M, Péneau, S, Hercberg, S, et al. Comparison of sociodemographic and nutritional characteristics between self-reported vegetarians, vegans, and meat-eaters from the NutriNet-Santé study.

Jakše, B. Placing a well-designed vegan diet for Slovenes. Sakkas, H, Bozidis, P, Touzios, C, Kolios, D, Athanasiou, G, Athanasopoulou, E, et al. Nutritional status and the influence of the vegan diet on the gut microbiota and human health. Domić, J, Grootswagers, P, van Loon, LJC, and de Groot, LCPGM.

Perspective: vegan diets for older adults? A perspective On the potential impact on muscle mass and strength. Adv Nutr. CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Le, LT, and Sabaté, J. Beyond meatless, the health effects of vegan diets: findings from the Adventist cohorts.

Wang, T, Masedunskas, A, Willett, WC, and Fontana, L. Vegetarian and vegan diets: benefits and drawbacks. Eur Heart J. Kim, J, Boushey, CJ, Wilkens, LR, Haiman, CA, le Marchand, L, and Park, SY.

BMC Med. Satija, A, Bhupathiraju, SN, Rimm, EB, Spiegelman, D, Chiuve, SE, Borgi, L, et al. Plant-based dietary patterns and incidence of type 2 diabetes in US men and women: results from three prospective cohort studies.

PLoS Med. Satija, A, Bhupathiraju, SN, Spiegelman, D, Chiuve, SE, Manson, JAE, Willett, W, et al. Healthful and unhealthful plant-based diets and the risk of coronary heart disease in US adults.

J Am Coll Cardiol. Samtiya, M, Aluko, RE, Dhewa, T, and Moreno-Rojas, JM. Potential health benefits of plant food-derived bioactive components: an overview. Walia, A, Gupta, AK, and Sharma, V.

Role of bioactive compounds in human health. Acta Scient Med Sci. Barber, TM, Kabisch, S, Pfeiffer, AFH, and Weickert, MO. The health benefits of dietary fibre. Zhang, F, Fan, D, Huang, J, and Zuo, T. The gut microbiome: linking dietary fiber to inflammatory diseases.

Med Microecol. Marrone, G, Guerriero, C, Palazzetti, D, Lido, P, Marolla, A, Di Daniele, F, et al. Here are 7 supplements that you may need on a vegan diet.

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How Well Do You Sleep? Health Conditions Discover Plan Connect. Nutrition Evidence Based 6 Science-Based Health Benefits of Eating Vegan. Medically reviewed by Adrienne Seitz, MS, RD, LDN , Nutrition — By Alina Petre, MS, RD NL — Updated on March 30, Get more nutrients Lose excess weight Reduce diabetes risk Prevent cancer Lower heart disease risk Reduce arthritis pain Recipes to try Vegan vs.

vegetarian Bottom line A vegan diet may have several benefits, such as helping you lose excess weight, lowering the risk of diabetes, improving kidney function, and lowering blood sugar levels, among others. A vegan diet is richer in certain nutrients.

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Vegetarian and vegan eating - Better Health Channel

Vitamin D is important for strong bones, muscles and overall health. The main source of vitamin D for most Australians is sunlight. There are few foods that contain significant amounts of vitamin D. Fortified low-fat and skim milk is another source of vitamin D, but it is present in low amounts.

Vegetarian sources of vitamin D include:. As the sun is also a major source of vitamin D, dietary intake is only important when exposure to UV light from the sun is inadequate — such as people who are housebound or whose clothing covers almost all of their skin. However, special care needs to be taken for vegetarian diets during pregnancy and breastfeeding, and infancy and childhood.

This especially applies to those who follow a vegan diet. Strict vegan diets are not recommended for very young children. A vegetarian diet can be safely followed during pregnancy provided you eat regularly to ensure you have enough energy. Include a variety of foods from the five food groups each day to meet your nutrient needs.

Most women will need supplements of nutrients that are difficult to obtain just from food such as folic acid and iodine. Vitamin B12 supplements will also be needed for women following vegan diets for optimal brain development in their baby. If you are breastfeeding and on a vegetarian diet, you can obtain all the nutrients and energy you need as long as you include a wide range of foods from the five food groups each day.

Depending on your individual circumstances, supplements may be recommended by your health professional. If you are breastfeeding and on a vegan diet, a vitamin or mineral supplement may be required.

This is particularly the case with vitamin B If you are breastfeeding and on a vegan diet you are recommended to continue to breastfeed — ideally for 2 years or longer. Check with a dietitian to make sure your diet contains the right amount of energy and nutrients to support your health and wellbeing and the optimal development of your infant, especially if you are exclusively breastfeeding or following a vegan diet.

Up to the age of 6 months, babies only need breastmilk or infant formula. From around 6 months, most babies are ready to be introduced to solids — although breastmilk or infant formula are still their main source of nutrition until 12 months.

Vegetarian and vegan foods can be safely introduced to babies and young children, provided all their energy and nutrient needs are met. This requires careful planning. For some babies — especially those being introduced to vegan eating, supplements may be recommended to ensure some essential nutrients typically provided by animal-based foods are supplied in adequate amounts such as iron and vitamin B If you wish to introduce your child to vegetarian or vegan eating, seek advice from a dietitian, doctor or your maternal and child health nurse to ensure they are getting essential nutrients for optimal growth and development.

From around 6 months, solids from all 5 food groups should be introduced gradually, with first foods being rich in iron, protein and energy for growth.

Iron is an important nutrient for growth and is vital for babies and young children. By 6 months of age, the stores of iron a baby has built up during pregnancy are usually depleted, which is why their first foods need to be iron-rich. Combine foods containing vitamin C with foods that are high in iron — such as offer an orange with baked beans on toast.

Vitamin C enhances the absorption of iron. Cook pulses thoroughly to destroy toxins and to help digestion. Undercooked pulses can cause vomiting and diarrhoea in young children. High fibre foods can also lead to poorer absorption of some nutrients such as iron, zinc and calcium.

Babies and children on vegetarian or vegan diets can get enough energy and boost their absorption of nutrients by eating a wide variety of foods and including lower fibre foods such as white bread and rice , in addition to wholegrain and wholemeal varieties.

Another way to ensure vegetarian children meet their energy needs is to give them frequent meals and snacks.

Feed and sleep patterns vary from baby-to-baby, as well as with age. Up to the age of 6 months, breastmilk or infant formula is the only food your baby needs.

Do not give your child unpasteurised milk raw milk — it can cause gastrointestinal illnesses. Plant-based milks such as soymilk except soy follow-on formula and other nutritionally incomplete plant-based milks such as rice, oat, coconut or almond milk are not suitable alternatives to breastmilk or infant formula for babies under 12 months.

After 12 months, under the guidance of your nurse, doctor or dietitian, full-fat fortified soy drink or calcium-enriched rice and oat beverages at least mg of calcium per mL can be used. If you are going to place your child on a vegetarian or vegan diet, seek advice from a health professional on how to maintain a balanced diet and any supplements needed.

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On this page. About vegetarian and vegan diets Types of vegetarian diets Health benefits of a vegetarian diet Meeting nutritional needs on a vegetarian diet Protein sources for vegetarians Minerals for vegetarians Vegetarian and vegan eating throughout life Where to get help.

About vegetarian and vegan diets A vegetarian diet is one that does not include any meat or seafood. The main types of vegetarianism are: Lacto-ovo-vegetarian — people who do not eat any meat and seafood, but include dairy foods such as milk , eggs and plant foods.

Lacto-vegetarian — people who do not eat meat, seafood and eggs, but include dairy foods and plant foods. Ovo-vegetarian — people who do not eat meat, seafood and dairy foods, but include eggs and plant foods. Vegan — people who avoid all animal foods and only eat plant foods.

Two other diets that are not strictly vegetarian but still focus on reducing or limiting the amount of animal products eaten are: Pescetarian — people who do not eat any meat, but include seafood, dairy foods, eggs and plant foods.

Health benefits of a vegetarian diet A well-balanced vegetarian or vegan diet can provide many health benefits, such as a reduced risk of chronic diseases, including: obesity coronary heart disease hypertension high blood pressure diabetes some types of cancer.

Meeting nutritional needs on a vegetarian diet If you choose to be vegetarian or vegan, plan your diet to make sure it includes all the essential nutrients. Protein sources for vegetarians Protein is essential for many bodily processes, including tissue building and repair.

Some of these minerals and their suggested food sources include: Iron Iron is an important mineral that is involved in various bodily functions, including the transport of oxygen in the blood. Good vegetarian food sources of iron include: cereal products fortified with iron such as breakfast cereals and bread wholegrains legumes tofu green leafy vegetables dried fruits.

Zinc Zinc performs numerous essential functions in the body, including the development of immune system cells. Although position papers from America and Canada have stated that well-planned vegan diets, are suitable for every stage of life, European statements have been more cautious of vegan diets in pregnancy and infancy.

The German Society for Paediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Polish National Consultant in the Field of Paediatrics and Spanish Paediatric Association do not recommend vegan diets during infancy or childhood and instead advise a balanced omnivorous or lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet to meet nutritional requirements.

The French Pediatric Hepatology, Gastroenterology and Nutrition Group have stated that a vegan diet is "not recommended for infants, children, and adolescents due to the risk of multiple nutritional deficiencies that are inevitable in the absence of supplements".

When these nutrients are missing, it negatively affects children's growth and neurocognitive development. The Slovenian Paediatric Society have advised against vegan diets for pregnant and lactating women, newborns, infants, children, and adolescents.

According to a systematic review , there was little evidence available about vegetarian and vegan diets during pregnancy, and a lack of randomized studies meant that the effects of diet could not be distinguished from confounding factors.

Researchers have reported cases of vitamin B 12 deficiency in lactating vegetarian mothers that were linked to deficiencies and neurological disorders in their children. A French expert consensus paper recommended a minimum of IU and a maximum of IU of vitamin D per day for vegan children aged years.

Because of the sensitive nature of pregnancy, vegan diets have attracted significant attention from the media, both positive and negative. Much of the reaction has focused on nutrition. Negative attention stems from cases of nutritional deficiencies that have come to the attention of the courts, including the death of a baby in New Zealand in due to hypocobalaminemia , i.

vitamin B 12 deficiency. The American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics states that special attention may be necessary to ensure that a vegan diet will provide adequate amounts of vitamin B 12 , omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, iodine, iron, and zinc.

Vitamin B 12 is not made by plants or animals, but by bacteria that grow in soil, feces, dirty water, the intestines of animals or laboratories, [58] [59] [60] [61] [62] so plant foods are not reliable sources of B Animals store vitamin B 12 in liver and muscle and some pass the vitamin into their eggs and milk; meat, liver, eggs and milk are therefore sources of B The UK Vegan Society , the Vegetarian Resource Group, and the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine , among others, recommend that every vegan consume adequate B 12 either from fortified foods or by taking a supplement.

Vitamin B 12 deficiency is potentially extremely serious, leading to megaloblastic anemia an undersupply of oxygen due to malformed red blood cells , [71] nerve degeneration and irreversible neurological damage. Because B 12 is stored in large amounts in the liver, deficiency in adults may begin only years after adoption of a diet lacking B For infants and young children who have not built up these stores, onset of B 12 deficiency can be faster and supplementation for vegan children is thus crucial.

Evidence shows that vegans who are not taking vitamin B 12 supplements do not consume sufficient B 12 and often have abnormally low blood concentrations of vitamin B Vegans are advised to adopt one of the following dietary options: [76]. B 12 is more efficiently absorbed in small regular doses, which explains why the quantity required rises so quickly as frequency goes down.

The US National Institutes of Health recommends B 12 intake in a range from 0. Some of the fortified foods require only a single serving to provide the recommended B 12 amounts. It has been suggested that nori an edible seaweed , tempeh a fermented soybean food , and nutritional yeast may be sources of vitamin B Otherwise, vitamin B 12 deficiency may develop, as has been demonstrated in case studies of vegan infants, children, and adults.

Vitamin B 12 is mostly manufactured by industrial fermentation of various kinds of bacteria, which make forms of cyanocobalamin , which are further processed to generate the ingredient included in supplements and fortified foods.

To increase vitamin production, it is supplemented with sugar beet molasses, or, less frequently, with choline. Humans require iodine for the production of thyroid hormones that enable normal thyroid function.

Vegan diets typically require special attention for iodine, for which the only substantial and reliable vegan sources are sea vegetables, iodized salt and supplements.

The iodine content of sea vegetables varies widely and may provide more than the recommended upper limit of iodine intake. A review found that vegans have lower iodine compared with omnivorous diets.

Proteins are composed of amino acids. Vegans obtain all their protein from plants, omnivores usually a third, and ovo-lacto vegetarians half. Combinations that contain high amounts of all the essential amino acids include rice and beans , corn and beans, and hummus and whole-wheat pita.

The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics said in that a variety of plant foods consumed over the course of a day can provide all the essential amino acids for healthy adults, which means that protein combining in the same meal is generally not necessary.

Experts have not established recommended amounts for omega-3 fatty acids, except for ALA. However, this only works efficiently if the ratio between omega 3 mainly in flaxseed, chia seeds to omega 6 mainly in sunflower oil does not exceed Major vegan sources of the essential omega-3 fatty acid ALA include walnuts , flaxseeds and flaxseed oil, canola rapeseed oil, algae oil, hempseeds and hempseed oil, olive oil , and avocado.

While there is little evidence of adverse health or cognitive effects due to DHA deficiency in adult vegetarians or vegans, fetal and breast milk levels remain a concern. DHA supplements derived from DHA-rich microalgae are available, and the human body can also convert DHA to EPA.

It is recommended that vegans eat three servings per day of a high- calcium food, such as fortified plant milks , green leafy vegetables, seeds, tofu , or other calcium-rich foods, and take a calcium supplement as necessary.

Vegans consume less calcium than omnivores or vegetarians. Consuming a vegan diet is associated with lower bone mineral density BMD. However, diet quality is not always considered in studies. High quality vegan or vegetarian diets may therefore afford the same bone health as that of omnivores.

It is recommended for vegans to daily eat iron-rich foods in combination with vitamin C, because vitamin C enhances iron absorption.

Due to the low absorption rate on non-heme iron, it is recommended to eat dark leafy greens and other sources of iron together with sources of vitamin C.

Iron levels of vegans may be of concern because of the limited bioavailability. There are concerns about the bioavailability of iron from plant foods, assumed by some researchers to be 5—15 percent compared to 18 percent from a non-vegetarian diet.

Vegetarians' iron stores are lower. Lower iron stores may increase the risk for iron deficiency. However, as high iron stores are associated with health risks, lower iron stores may be beneficial.

High-iron vegan foods include whole grains , legume soybeans , black beans, lentils , chickpeas , nuts, spinach , tempeh , tofu. Zinc levels of vegans may be of concern because of the limited bioavailability.

In general zinc intake and serum zinc is lower in vegans. Phytates can inhibit the absorption of zinc. Depending on the amount of zinc in the diet low, moderate, high , the German Nutrition Society DGE has established three different reference values for intake of zinc.

The main function of vitamin D in the body is to enhance absorption of calcium for normal mineralization of bones and calcium-dependent tissues.

Sunlight, fortified foods, and dietary supplements are the main sources of vitamin D for vegans. Humans produce vitamin D naturally in response to sun exposure and ultraviolet light UV acting on skin to stimulate vitamin D synthesis.

The recommended daily intake of vitamin D for adults is IU 15 micrograms , and for adults over 70 years old, IU 20 micrograms. Vitamin D comes in two forms.

Cholecalciferol vitamin D 3 is synthesized in the skin after exposure to the sun or consumed from food, usually from animal sources. However, both provitamins and vitamins D 2 and D 3 have been discovered in various species of edible Cladina lichens especially Cladina rangiferina.

National Academy of Medicine then called Institute of Medicine , the differences between vitamins D 2 and D 3 do not affect metabolism, both function as prohormones , and when activated, exhibit identical responses in the body. Some news reports presented vegan diets as deficient in choline following an opinion piece in the BMJ by a nutritionist affiliated with the meat industry.

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Download as PDF Printable version. In other projects. Wikimedia Commons. Nutritional and human health aspects of vegan diets. Further information: Nutrition and pregnancy. Further information: Vitamin B12 deficiency.

See also: Protein deficiency and Protein quality. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. doi : ISSN PMID S2CID Retrieved 26 January The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Vegan diets are usually higher in dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamins C and E, iron, and phytochemicals, and they tend to be lower in calories, saturated fat and cholesterol, long-chain n—3 omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, zinc, and vitamin B A vegan diet appears to be useful for increasing the intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and for minimizing the intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases.

Mangels, Reed. Neither plants nor animals make vitamin B Bacteria are responsible for producing vitamin B Animals get their vitamin B 12 from eating foods contaminated with vitamin B 12 and then the animal becomes a source of vitamin B Plant foods do not contain vitamin B 12 except when they are contaminated by microorganisms or have vitamin B 12 added to them.

Thus, vegans need to look to fortified foods or supplements to get vitamin B 12 in their diet. Norris, Jack. Luckily, vitamin B 12 is made by bacteria such that it does not need to be obtained from animal products. Journal of the American Dietetic Association.

CiteSeerX Vegan Australia. Archived from the original on 22 September — via News International. Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. Archived from the original PDF on 12 January Retrieved 21 September Retrieved 26 June Retrieved 22 November Retrieved 27 June The Mayo Clinic.

Archived from the original on 19 May Retrieved 11 December The Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. Retrieved 5 December National Programme for the Promotion of Healthy Eating. However, as in any food pattern, vegetarian diets may be inadequate.

United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 16 January Retrieved 17 January Archived from the original on 18 October Retrieved 13 October Food and Nutrition Service Memorandum.

Alexandria, VA: United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original PDF on 12 July Retrieved 13 March

Vegan gluten-free options Clinic offers appointments Isotonic drink reviews Arizona, Vegan nutrition facts and Minnesota and at Mayo Nutritkon Health System locations. A well-planned nutrtion diet is a healthy way to meet your nutritional needs. Find out what you need to know about a plant-based diet. Vegetarian diets continue to increase in popularity. Reasons for following a vegetarian diet vary but include health benefits.

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Vegan nutrition facts -

With good planning and an understanding of what makes up a healthy, balanced vegan diet, you can get all the nutrients your body needs. If you do not plan your diet properly, you could miss out on essential nutrients, such as calcium , iron , vitamin B12 , iodine and selenium.

During pregnancy and when breastfeeding, if you follow a vegan diet you'll need to make sure you get enough vitamins and minerals for your child to develop healthily. Find out more about a vegetarian and vegan diet while pregnant. If you're bringing up your baby or child on a vegan diet, you need to ensure they get a wide variety of foods to provide the energy and vitamins they need for growth.

Non-vegans get most of their calcium from dairy foods milk, cheese and yoghurt , but vegans can get it from other foods. A 30g portion of dried fruit counts as 1 of your 5 A Day , but should be eaten at mealtimes, not as a snack between meals, to reduce the impact of sugar on teeth.

The body needs vitamin D to regulate the amount of calcium and phosphate in the body. These nutrients help keep bones, teeth and muscles healthy. Read the label to ensure the vitamin D used in a product is not of animal origin. A vegan diet can be high in iron, although iron from plant-based food is absorbed by the body less well than iron from meat.

The body needs vitamin B12 to maintain healthy blood and a healthy nervous system. Many people get vitamin B12 from animal sources, such as meat, fish and dairy products.

This especially applies to those who follow a vegan diet. Strict vegan diets are not recommended for very young children. A vegetarian diet can be safely followed during pregnancy provided you eat regularly to ensure you have enough energy. Include a variety of foods from the five food groups each day to meet your nutrient needs.

Most women will need supplements of nutrients that are difficult to obtain just from food such as folic acid and iodine. Vitamin B12 supplements will also be needed for women following vegan diets for optimal brain development in their baby.

If you are breastfeeding and on a vegetarian diet, you can obtain all the nutrients and energy you need as long as you include a wide range of foods from the five food groups each day. Depending on your individual circumstances, supplements may be recommended by your health professional.

If you are breastfeeding and on a vegan diet, a vitamin or mineral supplement may be required. This is particularly the case with vitamin B If you are breastfeeding and on a vegan diet you are recommended to continue to breastfeed — ideally for 2 years or longer. Check with a dietitian to make sure your diet contains the right amount of energy and nutrients to support your health and wellbeing and the optimal development of your infant, especially if you are exclusively breastfeeding or following a vegan diet.

Up to the age of 6 months, babies only need breastmilk or infant formula. From around 6 months, most babies are ready to be introduced to solids — although breastmilk or infant formula are still their main source of nutrition until 12 months.

Vegetarian and vegan foods can be safely introduced to babies and young children, provided all their energy and nutrient needs are met. This requires careful planning. For some babies — especially those being introduced to vegan eating, supplements may be recommended to ensure some essential nutrients typically provided by animal-based foods are supplied in adequate amounts such as iron and vitamin B If you wish to introduce your child to vegetarian or vegan eating, seek advice from a dietitian, doctor or your maternal and child health nurse to ensure they are getting essential nutrients for optimal growth and development.

From around 6 months, solids from all 5 food groups should be introduced gradually, with first foods being rich in iron, protein and energy for growth. Iron is an important nutrient for growth and is vital for babies and young children. By 6 months of age, the stores of iron a baby has built up during pregnancy are usually depleted, which is why their first foods need to be iron-rich.

Combine foods containing vitamin C with foods that are high in iron — such as offer an orange with baked beans on toast. Vitamin C enhances the absorption of iron. Cook pulses thoroughly to destroy toxins and to help digestion.

Undercooked pulses can cause vomiting and diarrhoea in young children. High fibre foods can also lead to poorer absorption of some nutrients such as iron, zinc and calcium. Babies and children on vegetarian or vegan diets can get enough energy and boost their absorption of nutrients by eating a wide variety of foods and including lower fibre foods such as white bread and rice , in addition to wholegrain and wholemeal varieties.

Another way to ensure vegetarian children meet their energy needs is to give them frequent meals and snacks. Feed and sleep patterns vary from baby-to-baby, as well as with age.

Up to the age of 6 months, breastmilk or infant formula is the only food your baby needs. Do not give your child unpasteurised milk raw milk — it can cause gastrointestinal illnesses.

Plant-based milks such as soymilk except soy follow-on formula and other nutritionally incomplete plant-based milks such as rice, oat, coconut or almond milk are not suitable alternatives to breastmilk or infant formula for babies under 12 months. After 12 months, under the guidance of your nurse, doctor or dietitian, full-fat fortified soy drink or calcium-enriched rice and oat beverages at least mg of calcium per mL can be used.

If you are going to place your child on a vegetarian or vegan diet, seek advice from a health professional on how to maintain a balanced diet and any supplements needed.

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Further information: Nutrition and pregnancy. Further information: Vitamin B12 deficiency. See also: Protein deficiency and Protein quality. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. doi : ISSN PMID S2CID Retrieved 26 January The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

Vegan diets are usually higher in dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamins C and E, iron, and phytochemicals, and they tend to be lower in calories, saturated fat and cholesterol, long-chain n—3 omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, zinc, and vitamin B A vegan diet appears to be useful for increasing the intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and for minimizing the intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases.

Mangels, Reed. Neither plants nor animals make vitamin B Bacteria are responsible for producing vitamin B Animals get their vitamin B 12 from eating foods contaminated with vitamin B 12 and then the animal becomes a source of vitamin B Plant foods do not contain vitamin B 12 except when they are contaminated by microorganisms or have vitamin B 12 added to them.

Thus, vegans need to look to fortified foods or supplements to get vitamin B 12 in their diet. Norris, Jack. Luckily, vitamin B 12 is made by bacteria such that it does not need to be obtained from animal products. Journal of the American Dietetic Association.

CiteSeerX Vegan Australia. Archived from the original on 22 September — via News International. Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. Archived from the original PDF on 12 January Retrieved 21 September Retrieved 26 June Retrieved 22 November Retrieved 27 June The Mayo Clinic.

Archived from the original on 19 May Retrieved 11 December The Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. Retrieved 5 December National Programme for the Promotion of Healthy Eating.

However, as in any food pattern, vegetarian diets may be inadequate. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 16 January Retrieved 17 January Archived from the original on 18 October Retrieved 13 October Food and Nutrition Service Memorandum.

Alexandria, VA: United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original PDF on 12 July Retrieved 13 March The Nutrition Standards in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs final rule was published on January 26, The final rule gives schools the option to offer commercially prepared tofu as a meat alternate in the National School Lunch Program NSLP and School Breakfast Program SBP.

Ernährungs Umschau. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung e. Retrieved Because the available data remain insufficient, no satisfactory assessment can be made with regard to micronutrient intake and supply status or prevalence of nutrient deficiencies or other adverse health effects regarding a vegan diet in these special population groups.

Allergol Select. PMC Proc Nutr Soc. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. Nutrition Standing Committee of the British Paediatric Association". Arch Dis Child. The Journal of Pediatrics. Ital J Pediatr.

Mol Cell Pediatr. Stand Med Pediatr. Committee on Nutrition and Breastfeeding of the Spanish Paediatric Association". An Pediatr Engl Ed. Arch Pediatr. A systematic narrative review".

Office of Dietary Supplements, US National Institutes of Health. Retrieved 3 April Reese; Black, Maureen M. August National Health Service, UK. The Journal of Perinatal Education. NZ Herald. Retrieved 6 January Caleb died in March last year from broncho-pneumonia associated with anaemia and brain damage caused by vitamin B12 deficiency.

the Guardian. BBC Good Food. Portland Press Herald. British Dietetic Association. Microbial Cell Factories. Biochemical Society Transactions.

Vegan diet Nutrtion emerged favts a popular dietary choice for people worldwide Nnutrition recent times, due to concerns such as health nutrihion, animal rights Vegan nutrition facts welfare, and facta sustainability Image format optimization the environment. The purpose of facst literature review was to explain factx a Sports dietitian services diet Veban affect the Isotonic drink reviews of adults Veagn to point out beneficial components found in facgs as well as any difficulties associated with its implementation. Evidence supports that a vegan diet can reduce the risk of chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and certain types of cancer. Given the current growing interest in plant-based diets among the general population, it is crucial to understand both the barriers, risks, and benefits of the vegan diet among physicians, policy makers, and the general population. Vegan diet has become a popular diet choice for people around the world, in recent times, due to concerns such as health issues, animal rights and welfare, and sustainability of the environment 1. Over the years, research has explored the nutritional benefits of a vegan diet and its potential effects on health and well-being. A well-planned vegan diet contains only plant-derived foods, such as fruits, vegetables, legumes, grains, seeds, and nuts 4.

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