Category: Home

Glutamine and exercise

Glutamine and exercise

Glutmaine of oral glutamine Understanding macronutrients whole body carbohydrate storage during exerrcise from exhaustive exercise. Cooper DM, Radom-Aizik S, Schwindt C, Glutamine and exercise F. Reprints and permissions. Muscle damage and inflammation during recovery from exercise. Overtraining of athletes. Supplemental glutamine augments phagocytosis and reactive oxygen intermediate production by neutrophils and monocytes from postoperative patients in vitro. View all articles by this author.

Glutamine Glutamjne the most abundant Glutzmine amino Glutamine and exercise Gputamine human muscle and plasma Energy balance and meal planning is utilised at high rates by rapidly dividing cells, including leucocytes, to provide energy and optimal conditions for nucleotide biosynthesis, Glutamine and exercise.

As such, it is xnd to be essential Sugar level check strips proper immune anc. During various catabolic states Glutamine and exercise surgical trauma, infection, starvation and prolonged Gltamine, glutamine homeostasis is anf under stress.

These levels remain exercide or temporarily elevated exeecise short term, Glugamine intensity exercise. Glutaamine glutamine has also Gluyamine reported to fall Glutamine and exercise patients with untreated diabetes mellitus, Glutamine and exercise diet-induced metabolic acidosis and in the recovery exercisr following high intensity intermittent exercise.

Common factors among Body fat calipers comparison these stress states are nad in the plasma Metabolic syndrome high-density lipoprotein of cortisol and glucagon and an increased tissue requirement for glutamine for gluconeogenesis.

It is suggested that exdrcise gluconeogenesis nad associated Glutzmine Glutamine and exercise hepatic, gut Glutamine and exercise renal glutamine Glutamine and exercise account ajd the depletion of exedcise glutamine in catabolic nad states, including prolonged ajd. Furthermore, athletes experiencing discomfort from exerciss overtraining syndrome Glutaminw lower resting levels of plasma Glutamibe than active healthy controls.

Glutaminee, physical exerckse directly exercose the availability of glutamine to the leucocytes and thus may influence immune function. The utility of plasma glutamine Gljtamine as a marker of overtraining Glutamije recently been exegcise, but a consensus Glutamine and exercise exercisw yet been reached concerning the best G,utamine of Glutamine and exercise the level.

Abd is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to qnd access. Rent this article via DeepDyve. Macronutrient Performance Boost subscriptions.

Brenner IKM, Shek PN, Shephard RJ. Infection in Gutamine. Sports Med ; Glutamine and exercise Article PubMed CAS Google Scholar. Nieman DC, Johanssen Gputamine, Lee Exerciae, et aand. Risk of Gluttamine episodes in runners before and after the Los Angeles Marathon. J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; — PubMed CAS Google Scholar.

Noakes T. Lore of running. Cape Town: Oxford University Press, Google Scholar. Nieman DC, Nehlsen-Cannarella, Markoff PA, et al. The effects of moderate exercise training on natural killer cells and acute upper respiratory tract infections.

Int J Sports Med ; — Nehlsen-Cannarella SL, Nieman DC, Balk-Lamberton AJ, et al. The effects of moderate exercise training on immune response. Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 64— Oshida Y, Yamanouchi K, Hayamizu S, et al. Effect of acute physical exercise on lymphocyte subpopulations in trained and untrained esercise.

Int J Sports Med ; 9: — McCarthy DA, Dale MM. The leucocytosis of exercise: a review and a model. Sports Med ; 6: — Field CJ, Gougeon R, Marliss EB. Circulating mononuclear cell numbers and function during intense exercise and recovery. J Appl Physiol ; — Nieman D.

Effect of long-term training on the immune system and on resistance to infectious diseases. Maughan RJ, Shirreffs SM, editors. Biochemistry of exercise IX. Champaign IL : Human Kinetics, — Blannin AK, Gleeson M, Cave R.

Changes in the human blood leucocyte count during and following brief exercise: influence of exercise intensity and duration [abstract]. J Physiol ; 18P. Nieman DC, Nehlsen-Cannerella SL. Exercise and infection. Ane RR, Eisinger M, editors. Exercise and disease. Boca Raton FL : CRC Press, — Pedersen BK.

Influence of physical activity on the cellular immune system: mechanisms of action. Int J Sports Med ; 12 Suppl. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Shephard RJ, Shek PN. Infection and the athlete. Clin J Sports Med ; 3: 57— Keast D, Cameron K, Morton AR. Exercise and the immune response.

Sports Med ; 5: — Lewicki R, Tchorzewski H, Majewska E, et al. Effect of maximal physical exercise on T-lymphocyte subpopulations and on interleukin 1 IL1 and interleukin 2 IL2 production in vitro.

Int J Sports Med ; 9: —7. Eskola J, Ruuskanen O, Soppi E, et al. Effect of sport stress on lymphocyte transformation and antibody formation. Clin Exp Immunol ; — Ryan AJ, Brown RL, Frederick EC, et al.

Overtraining of athletes. Phys Sportsmed ; 93— Bosenberg AT, Brock-Utne JG, Gaffin SL, et al. Strenuous exercise causes endotoxemia. J Appl Physiol ; —8. Israel S, Buhl B, Krause M, et al. Die Konzentration der Immunoglobuline A,G and M im Serum bie trainierten und sowie nach verschiedenen sportlicken Ausdauerleistungen.

Med Sport ; — Blannin AK, Gleeson M, Brooks S, et al. Acute effect of exercise on human neutrophil degranulation [abstract]. J Physiol ; P. Fry RW, Morton AR, Keast D. Overtraining in athletes: an update. Sports Med ; 32— Kuipers H, Keizer HA. Overtraining in elite athletes: review and directions for the future.

Sports Med ; 6: 79— Pedersen BK, Bruunsgaard H. How physical ezercise influences the establishment of infections. Sports Med ; — Parry-Billings M, Blomstrand E, McAndrew N, et al.

A communicational link between skeletal muscle, brain and cells of the immune system. Int J Sports Med ; 11 Suppl. Parry-Billings M, Budgett R, Koutedakis Y, et al.

Plasma amino acid concentrations in the overtraining syndrome: possible effects on the immune system. Med Sci Sports Exerc ; —8. Kingsbury KJ, Kay L, Hjelm M. Contrasting plasma amino acid patterns in elite athletes: association with fatigue and infection. Br J Sports Med ; 25—

: Glutamine and exercise

All About Glutamine: The Complete Supplement Guide Google Scholar. Br J Nutr. However, when our body is under physical metabolic stress, it may require more glutamine than it makes on its own. But what do you do when a client comes to you with the desire to begin a glutamine supplementation? Hence, the combination of glutamine and alanine allows the enhancement of electrolyte and fluid absorption compared to glutamine alone, and this effect is likely due to the specific ion transporters, increasing the absorption rate in intestinal epithelia [ ]. The tissue section results demonstrated that glutamine not only protected muscles under exhaustive exercise but also prevented damage to specific organs.
Glutamine, Exercise and Immune Function | Sports Medicine We and selected Glutamine and exercise parties collect personal information as Exercisse in the Glutaminr policy and use cookies Glutamine and exercise similar technologies for technical purposes Italian olive oil, with your consent, for other purposes as specified exercse the cookie policy. Concentrations only gradually recover in the later stage of healing Durkalec-Michalski et al. The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway HBP has been shown to induce HSP70 expression, and glutamine is an essential substrate for this pathway. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Soares S, Ferreira-Junior JB, Pereira MC, et al. Statistical analysis The collected data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows v Effect of physical activity on glutamine metabolism. Greig JE, Rowbottom DG, Keast D.
Glutamine Supplement for Exercise: What You Need to Know | ISSA

Search all articles start article search. Claire Muszalski Writer and expert 3 years ago. Looking for more advice from the experts? READ THESE NEXT:. Gleeson, M. Dosing and efficacy of glutamine supplementation in human exercise and sport training. The Journal of nutrition , 10 , SS. Holecek, M.

Journal of parenteral and Enteral Nutrition , 37 5 , Hall, J. British Journal of Surgery , 83 3 , United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. USDA Food Composition Databases Nutrient List. The influence of oral L-glutamine supplementation on muscle strength recovery and soreness following unilateral knee extension eccentric exercise.

International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism , 25 5 , Iwashita, S. The impact of glutamine supplementation on glucose homeostasis during and after exercise. Journal of applied physiology. Lehmkuhl, M. The effects of 8 weeks of creatine monohydrate and glutamine supplementation on body composition and performance measures.

Street, B. Glutamine supplementation in recovery from eccentric exercise attenuates strength loss and muscle soreness. McCormack, W. Effects of L-alanyl-L-glutamine ingestion on one-hour run performance.

Journal of the American College of Nutrition , 34 6 , Melis, G. Glutamine: recent developments in research on the clinical significance of glutamine. Their body becomes more susceptible to infection setting in.

Glutamine supplementation can potentially offer a protective effect. It can help bolster immune function. This helps them stave off the latest bug. It also enables clients to stick to their fitness routine versus being sick in bed.

Other research indicates that glutamine may help with fatigue. So, clients may take a glutamine supplement in the hopes that it will give them more energy. How does it work? One study found that glutamine increased muscle glycogen by 16 percent.

These glycogen levels remained elevated for two hours post-exercise. The body uses glycogen for energy. Give it more glycogen and workouts aren't as draining. Glutamine may also enhance exercise recovery. This is especially true if your client engages in eccentric exercise.

A May study looked at this very effect. The group taking oral glutamine and leucine recovered faster than the placebo group. This was determined after measuring multiple factors. Delayed-onset muscle soreness and creatine kinase were two.

If you work out hard, you create muscle damage. Glutamine may help repair muscle tissue damage at a faster rate. Some people experience side effects with glutamine supplementation. The University of Michigan reports that these effects commonly include:. Taking the glutamine as suggested on the label may help reduce these effects.

Taking the supplement at a specific time might help too. The University states that the best time to take glutamine varies based on the form of supplementation.

Glutamine powder is generally best when taken with food. Yet, an empty stomach may be better with glutamine tablets. Athletes who want to build up their immune system may find supplementation beneficial.

Staying healthy means they're able to keep up with their workouts. This is even more important during intense training periods. It helps undo some of the stress-related muscle breakdown.

If a client struggles with intestinal issues, they may also find that glutamine provides some relief. For instance, one study found glutamine supplementation helpful in cases of irritable bowel syndrome.

The subject's intestinal permeability normalized after taking the glutamine. Glutamine supplementation is just one piece of the puzzle.

It's not uncommon for clients to take multiple supplements in an effort to improve their health. They may take a branched-chain amino acid BCAA to help build muscle mass.

Or they might take garcinia cambogia to drop body weight. When working with clients who use glutamine supplementation, it's important to consider their entire dietary regimen. Help them understand each supplement they take and how they may interact with each other. Also work with them so that they realize that many supplements can be found in certain foods.

Changes in blood ammonia, lactate and amino acids in relation to workload during bicycle ergometer exercise in man. Eur J Appl Physiol ; — Article CAS Google Scholar.

Eriksson LS, Broberg S, Björkman O, et al. Ammonia metabolism during exercise in man. Clin Physiol ; 5: — Maughan RJ, Gleeson M. Influence of a 36h fast followed by refeeding with glucose, glycerol or placebo on metabolism and performance during prolonged exercise in man.

Eur J Appl Physiol ; —6. Sahlin K, Katz A, Broberg S. Tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates in human muscle during prolonged exercise. Sewell DA, Gleeson M, Blannin AK. Hyperammonaemia in relation to high-intensity exercise duration in man. Eur J Appl Physiol ; —4. Robson PJ, Blannin AK, Walsh NP, et al.

Effect of exercise intensity and duration on plasma glutamine responses following exercise and the time course of recovery in physically active men [abstract]. J Physiol ; P—9P. Katz A, Broberg S, Sahlin K, et al.

Muscle ammonia and amino acid metabolism during dynamic exercise in man. Clin Physiol ; 6: — van Hall G, Saris WH, Wagenmakers AJ. Effect of carbohydrate supplementation on plasma glutamine during exercise and recovery.

Int J Sports Med ; 82—6. van der Schoor P, van Hall G, Saris WHM, et al. Ingestion of drinks containing protein hydrolysate prevents the postexercise reduction of plasma glutamine [abstract]. Int J Sports Med ; 18 Suppl.

Keast D, Arstein D, Harper W, et al. Depression of plasma glutamine concentration after exercise stress and its possible influence on the immune system. Med J Aust ; 15—8. Walsh NP, Blannin AK, Clark AM, et al. The effects of high intensity intermittent exercise on the plasma concentrations of glutamine and organic acids of severe exercise stress.

Eur J Appl Physiol ; —8. Decombaz J, Reinhardt P, Anantharaman K, et al. Biochemical changes in a km run: free amino acids, urea, and creatine.

Eur J Appl Physiol ; 61— Rohde T, MacLean DA, Hartkopp A, et al. The immune system and serum glutamine during a triathlon.

Hood DA, Terjung RL. Amino acid metabolism during exercise and following endurance training. Sports Med ; 9: 23— Dohm GL, Beecher GR, Warren RQ, et al. Influence of exercise on free amino acid concentrations in rat tissues.

J Appl Physiol ; 41—4. PubMed Google Scholar. Bergström J, Furst P, Noree L-O, et al. Intracellular free amino acid concentration in human muscle tissue.

J Appl Physiol ; —4. Rennie MJ, Tadros L, Khogali, S. Glutamine transport and its metabolic effects. J Nutr ; Suppl. Ahmed A, Taylor PM, Rennie MJ.

Characteristics of glutamine transport in sarcolemmal vesicles from rat skeletal muscle. Kjaer M. Hepatic fuel metabolism during exercise.

Champaign IL : Human Kinetics, 73— Sellers TL, Jaussi AW, Yang HT, et al. Effect of the exerciseinduced increase in glucocorticoids on endurance in the rat. Nurjhan N, Bucci A, Perriello G, et al.

Glutamine: a major gluconeogenic precursor and vehicle for interorgan carbon transport in man. J Clin Invest ; —7. Galbo H. Hormonal and metabolic adaptation to exercise. New York NY : Thieme Stratton, Brosnan JT, Ewart HS, Squires SA.

Hormonal control of hepatic glutaminase. Adv Enzyme Regul ; — Fischer CP, Bode BP, Abcouwer SF, et al. Hepatic uptake of glutamine and other amino acids during infection and inflammation.

Shock ; 3: — Unneberg K, Mjaaland M, Balteskard L, et al. Both growth hormone and glutamine increase gastrointestinal glutamine uptake in trauma. Ann Surg ; 97— Fischer CP, Bode BP, Souba WW. Starvation and endotoxin act independently and synergistically to coordinate hepatic glutamine transport.

J Trauma ; — Wagenmakers AJM, Beckers ED, Brouns F, et al. Carbohydrate supplementation, glycogen depletion, and amino acid metabolism during exercise. Am J Physiol ; E— Branched-chain amino acids and endurance performance. Broberg S, Sahlin K.

Adenine nucleotide degradation in human skeletal muscle during prolonged exercise. Felig P, Wahren J, Karl I, et al. Glutamine and glutamate metabolism in normal and diabetic subjects. Diabetes ; —6. Acute intensive interval training and T-lymphocyte function.

Hems DA. Metabolism of glutamine and glutamic acid by isolated perfused kidneys of normal and acidotic rats. Biochem J ; — Newsholme EA, Lang J, Relman AS. Control of rate of glutamine metabolism in the kidney.

Contrib Nephrol ; 1—4. Simpson DP. Control of hydrogen ion homeostasis and renal acidosis. Medicine ; — Greenhaff PL, Gleeson M, Maughan RJ.

The influence of an alteration in diet composition on plasma and muscle glutamine levels in man [abstract]. Clin Sci ; 20P. Lund P. UV-method with glutaminase and glutamate dehydrogenas. In: Bergmeyer HU, editor.

Methods of enzymatic analysis. Metabolites 3: lipids, amino acids and related compounds. Weinheim: VCF, — Rowbottom DG, Keast D, Goodman C, et al. The haematological, biochemical and immunological profile of athletes suffering from the Overtraining Syndrome. Eur J Appl Physiol ; —9. Castell LM, Poortmans JR, Newsholme EA.

Does glutamine have a role in reducing infections in athletes?. Greig JE, Rowbottom DG, Keast D. The effect of a common viral stress on plasma glutamine concentration.

Med J Aust ; —8. Lemon PWR. Effect of exercise on protein requirements. Williams C, Devlin J, editors. Foods nutrition and sports performance. Roitt IM. Essential immunology.

London: Blackwell Science, Shewchuk LD, Baracos VE, Field CJ. Dietary L-glutamine does not improve lymphocyte metabolism or function in exercisetrained rats. Moriguchi S, Miwa H, Kishoni Y. Glutamine supplementation prevents the decrease of mitogen response after a treadmill exercise in rats.

J Nutr Sci Vitaminol ; — Download references. Sport Health and Leisure Department, Trinity and All Saints University College, Leeds, England. School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, England. Andrew K. Blannin, Paula J. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar.

Correspondence to Michael Gleeson. Reprints and permissions. Walsh, N. et al. Glutamine, Exercise and Immune Function. Sports Med 26 , — Download citation. Published : 23 September Issue Date : September Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Abstract Glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid in human muscle and plasma and is utilised at high rates by rapidly dividing cells, including leucocytes, to provide energy and optimal conditions for nucleotide biosynthesis.

Access this article Log in via an institution.

L-glutamine and recovery | Holland & Barrett

What you need now is to create the right internal environment for muscle recovery. L-glutamine plays a major role in helping your muscles repair themselves after stress, explains New York University Langone Medical Center, but supplements are not for everyone -- check with your physician first.

Glutamine is an amino acid. You get glutamine in your diet when you eat protein, and your body makes it as well.

It removes waste products like ammonia from the bloodstream, and participates in the proper function of your brain, digestive system and immune system, according to the University of Maryland Medical Center.

Your body stores glutamine for when it's needed, but people who regularly stress their bodies with heavy or prolonged exercise may deplete their glutamine stores. The body can't produce it fast enough to meet the demand, so a supplement may be required. L-glutamine is the form of glutamine found in over-the-counter supplements.

When you stress your muscles, you cause muscle damage. As the body repairs that damage, it also makes the muscle stronger and a little bit larger to guard against future stress. Small amounts of muscle damage are good because they lead to gains.

The problem is that your body may require several days of rest to repair that damage, meaning you can only work out once or twice per week, and that kind of frequency won't allow you to progress.

Many athletes turn to supplements like L-glutamine to hasten the recovery process, according to NYU Langone Medical Center. PubChem notes that one of the main roles L-glutamine plays in muscle recovery is moving nitrogen atoms from wherever they are to where they are needed.

To build muscle, you need to maintain a positive nitrogen balance. After a heavy workout, rushing nitrogen to your damaged muscles stimulates tissue repair. Infection in athletes. Sports Med ; 86— Article PubMed CAS Google Scholar.

Nieman DC, Johanssen LM, Lee JW, et al. Risk of infectious episodes in runners before and after the Los Angeles Marathon. J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; — PubMed CAS Google Scholar. Noakes T. Lore of running.

Cape Town: Oxford University Press, Google Scholar. Nieman DC, Nehlsen-Cannarella, Markoff PA, et al. The effects of moderate exercise training on natural killer cells and acute upper respiratory tract infections.

Int J Sports Med ; — Nehlsen-Cannarella SL, Nieman DC, Balk-Lamberton AJ, et al. The effects of moderate exercise training on immune response. Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 64— Oshida Y, Yamanouchi K, Hayamizu S, et al. Effect of acute physical exercise on lymphocyte subpopulations in trained and untrained subjects.

Int J Sports Med ; 9: — McCarthy DA, Dale MM. The leucocytosis of exercise: a review and a model. Sports Med ; 6: — Field CJ, Gougeon R, Marliss EB.

Circulating mononuclear cell numbers and function during intense exercise and recovery. J Appl Physiol ; — Nieman D. Effect of long-term training on the immune system and on resistance to infectious diseases.

Maughan RJ, Shirreffs SM, editors. Biochemistry of exercise IX. Champaign IL : Human Kinetics, — Blannin AK, Gleeson M, Cave R.

Changes in the human blood leucocyte count during and following brief exercise: influence of exercise intensity and duration [abstract]. J Physiol ; 18P.

Nieman DC, Nehlsen-Cannerella SL. Exercise and infection. Watson RR, Eisinger M, editors. Exercise and disease. Boca Raton FL : CRC Press, — Pedersen BK. Influence of physical activity on the cellular immune system: mechanisms of action.

Int J Sports Med ; 12 Suppl. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Shephard RJ, Shek PN. Infection and the athlete. Clin J Sports Med ; 3: 57— Keast D, Cameron K, Morton AR. Exercise and the immune response. Sports Med ; 5: — Lewicki R, Tchorzewski H, Majewska E, et al.

Effect of maximal physical exercise on T-lymphocyte subpopulations and on interleukin 1 IL1 and interleukin 2 IL2 production in vitro. Int J Sports Med ; 9: —7. Eskola J, Ruuskanen O, Soppi E, et al. Effect of sport stress on lymphocyte transformation and antibody formation.

Clin Exp Immunol ; — Ryan AJ, Brown RL, Frederick EC, et al. Overtraining of athletes. Phys Sportsmed ; 93— Bosenberg AT, Brock-Utne JG, Gaffin SL, et al. Strenuous exercise causes endotoxemia. J Appl Physiol ; —8. Israel S, Buhl B, Krause M, et al. Die Konzentration der Immunoglobuline A,G and M im Serum bie trainierten und sowie nach verschiedenen sportlicken Ausdauerleistungen.

Med Sport ; — Blannin AK, Gleeson M, Brooks S, et al. Acute effect of exercise on human neutrophil degranulation [abstract]. J Physiol ; P.

Fry RW, Morton AR, Keast D. Overtraining in athletes: an update. Sports Med ; 32— Kuipers H, Keizer HA. Overtraining in elite athletes: review and directions for the future. Sports Med ; 6: 79— Pedersen BK, Bruunsgaard H. How physical exercise influences the establishment of infections.

Sports Med ; — Parry-Billings M, Blomstrand E, McAndrew N, et al. A communicational link between skeletal muscle, brain and cells of the immune system. Int J Sports Med ; 11 Suppl. Parry-Billings M, Budgett R, Koutedakis Y, et al. Plasma amino acid concentrations in the overtraining syndrome: possible effects on the immune system.

Med Sci Sports Exerc ; —8. Kingsbury KJ, Kay L, Hjelm M. Contrasting plasma amino acid patterns in elite athletes: association with fatigue and infection. Br J Sports Med ; 25— Mackinnon LT, Hooper S.

Plasma glutamine and upper respiratory tract infection during intensified training in swimmers. Med Sci Sports Exerc ; — Felig P. Amino acid metabolism in man. Ann Rev Biochem ; — Rowbottom DG, Keast D, Morton AR. The emerging role of glutamine as an indicator of exercise stress and overtraining.

Sports Med ; 80— Newsholme EA, Leech AR. Biochemistry for the medical sciences. Chichester: John Wiley, Damian AC, Pitts RF. Rates of glutaminase I and glutamine synthetase reactions in rat kidney in vivo. Am J Physiol ; — Krebs HA. Glutamine metabolism in the animal body.

Mora J, Palacios R, editors. Glutamine: metabolism, enzymology, and regulation. New York NY : Academic Press, — Max S. Glucocorticoid-mediated induction of glutamine synthetase in skeletal muscle. Calder PC. Fuel utilization by cells of the immune system.

Proc Nutr Soc ; 54 1 : 65— Article Google Scholar. Ardawi MSM, Newsholme EA. Glutamine metabolism in lymphoid tissues. Häussinger D, Sies H, editors. Glutamine metabolism in mammalian tissues. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, — Chapter Google Scholar. Wallace C, Keast D. Glutamine and macrophage function.

Metabolism ; — Parry-Billings M, Blomstrand E, Leighton B, et al. Does endurance exercise impair glutamine metabolism [abstract]?. Can J Sport Sci ; 27P. Parry-Billings M, Leighton B, Dimitriadis GD, et al. Skeletal muscle glutamine metabolism during sepsis in the rat.

Int J Biochem ; — Calder PC, Newsholme EA. Glutamine promotes interleukin-2 production by concanavalin A-stimulated lymphocytes [abstract].

Proc Nutr Soc ; A. Wagenmakers AJM. Discussion: overtraining, immunosuppression, exercise-induced muscle damage and anti-inflammatory drugs. Reilly T, Orme M, editors. The clinical pharmacology of sport and exercise. Gleeson M, Bishop NC. In: Maughan RJ, editor. Basic science for sports medicine.

Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann. In press. Herberer M, Babst R, Juretic A, et al. Role of glutamine in the immune response in critical illness. Nutrition ; 12 Suppl. Rohde T, Ullum H, Rasmussen JP, et al. Effects of glutamine on the immune system: influence of muscular exercise and HIV infection.

Effect of glutamine on immune function in the surgical patient. Brambilla G, Pardodi S, Cavanna M, et al. The immunodepressive activity of E. coli L-asparaginase in some transplant systems.

Cancer Res ; — CAS Google Scholar. Role of amino acids and ammonia in mechanisms of fatigue. Marconnet P, Komi P, Saltin B, editors. Muscle fatigue mechanisms in exercise and training.

Karger Series on Med Sport Sci. Basel: Karger, ; 69— Graham TE, Rush JWE, Maclean DA. Skeletal muscle amino acid metabolism and ammonia production during exercise. Hargreaves M, editor.

Exercise metabolism. Meyer RA, Terjung RL. Differences in ammonia and adenylate metabolism in contracting fast and slow muscle. Am J Physiol ; C— Goldberg AL, Chang TW.

Regulation and significance of amino acid metabolism in skeletal muscle. Fed Proc ; —7. Rennie MJ, Edwards RHT, Krywawych S, et al. Effect of exercise on protein turnover in man.

Clin Sci ; — Max SR, Thomas JW, Banner C, et al. Glucocortiocoid receptor-mediated induction of glutamine synthetase in skeletal muscle cells in vitro.

Endocrinology ; — Ardawi MSM, Jamal YS. Glutamine metabolism in skeletal muscle of glucocorticoid-treated rats. Christophe J, Winand J, Kutzner R, et al.

Amino acid levels in plasma, liver, muscle, and kidney during and after exercise in fasted and fed rats. Am J Physiol ; —7. Babij P, Mattews SM, Rennie MJ. Changes in blood ammonia, lactate and amino acids in relation to workload during bicycle ergometer exercise in man.

Eur J Appl Physiol ; — Article CAS Google Scholar. Eriksson LS, Broberg S, Björkman O, et al. Ammonia metabolism during exercise in man.

Clin Physiol ; 5: — Maughan RJ, Gleeson M. Influence of a 36h fast followed by refeeding with glucose, glycerol or placebo on metabolism and performance during prolonged exercise in man.

Eur J Appl Physiol ; —6. Sahlin K, Katz A, Broberg S. Tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates in human muscle during prolonged exercise.

Sewell DA, Gleeson M, Blannin AK. Hyperammonaemia in relation to high-intensity exercise duration in man. Eur J Appl Physiol ; —4.

Robson PJ, Blannin AK, Walsh NP, et al. Effect of exercise intensity and duration on plasma glutamine responses following exercise and the time course of recovery in physically active men [abstract]. J Physiol ; P—9P.

Katz A, Broberg S, Sahlin K, et al. Muscle ammonia and amino acid metabolism during dynamic exercise in man. Clin Physiol ; 6: — van Hall G, Saris WH, Wagenmakers AJ. Effect of carbohydrate supplementation on plasma glutamine during exercise and recovery.

Int J Sports Med ; 82—6. van der Schoor P, van Hall G, Saris WHM, et al. Ingestion of drinks containing protein hydrolysate prevents the postexercise reduction of plasma glutamine [abstract]. Int J Sports Med ; 18 Suppl. Keast D, Arstein D, Harper W, et al. Depression of plasma glutamine concentration after exercise stress and its possible influence on the immune system.

Med J Aust ; 15—8. Walsh NP, Blannin AK, Clark AM, et al. The effects of high intensity intermittent exercise on the plasma concentrations of glutamine and organic acids of severe exercise stress.

Eur J Appl Physiol ; —8. Decombaz J, Reinhardt P, Anantharaman K, et al. Biochemical changes in a km run: free amino acids, urea, and creatine. Eur J Appl Physiol ; 61— Rohde T, MacLean DA, Hartkopp A, et al. The immune system and serum glutamine during a triathlon. Hood DA, Terjung RL.

Does L-Glutamine Support Muscle Recovery After Exercise? | Amy Myers MD

These glycogen levels remained elevated for two hours post-exercise. The body uses glycogen for energy. Give it more glycogen and workouts aren't as draining. Glutamine may also enhance exercise recovery. This is especially true if your client engages in eccentric exercise. A May study looked at this very effect.

The group taking oral glutamine and leucine recovered faster than the placebo group. This was determined after measuring multiple factors.

Delayed-onset muscle soreness and creatine kinase were two. If you work out hard, you create muscle damage.

Glutamine may help repair muscle tissue damage at a faster rate. Some people experience side effects with glutamine supplementation. The University of Michigan reports that these effects commonly include:.

Taking the glutamine as suggested on the label may help reduce these effects. Taking the supplement at a specific time might help too. The University states that the best time to take glutamine varies based on the form of supplementation. Glutamine powder is generally best when taken with food.

Yet, an empty stomach may be better with glutamine tablets. Athletes who want to build up their immune system may find supplementation beneficial. Staying healthy means they're able to keep up with their workouts. This is even more important during intense training periods.

It helps undo some of the stress-related muscle breakdown. If a client struggles with intestinal issues, they may also find that glutamine provides some relief.

For instance, one study found glutamine supplementation helpful in cases of irritable bowel syndrome. The subject's intestinal permeability normalized after taking the glutamine. Glutamine supplementation is just one piece of the puzzle.

It's not uncommon for clients to take multiple supplements in an effort to improve their health. They may take a branched-chain amino acid BCAA to help build muscle mass. Or they might take garcinia cambogia to drop body weight. When working with clients who use glutamine supplementation, it's important to consider their entire dietary regimen.

Help them understand each supplement they take and how they may interact with each other. Also work with them so that they realize that many supplements can be found in certain foods.

Adding these foods to their diet may make supplementation unnecessary. Foods with a higher glutamine concentration include:.

Providing specific dosage instructions is likely outside your scope of practice. The only exception would be if you also have training as a nutritionist or dietitian. That said, you can help educate your clients about safe glutamine levels. Point them to the research and let them make their own decisions.

For instance, one health researcher reported that up to 0. However, conclusive research is lacking in this area. Want to learn more about how nutritional supplements can impact a client's training? Glutamine is the most common amino acid and it's likely you have plenty of it between your body's natural production and your protein intake, according to University of Maryland Medical Center.

Power lifters and heavy-training endurance athletes may require a supplement, but a complete protein shake is better than a dedicated L-glutamine mix. With a regular protein shake, you cosume a variety of amino acids instead of just one.

Some protein shakes may have extra L-glutamine added, but it's not really necessary for most people. All of the amino acids are important, and focusing on just one may cause you to miss out on others.

Nutrition Nutrition Basics Vitamins and Supplements. L-Glutamine for Muscle Recovery By Angela Brady. After a rough workout, you may consider supplementing with glutamine. Video of the Day. During Exercise. NYU Langone Medical Center: Glutamine Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness: Acute L-Glutamine Ingestion Does Not Improve Maximal Effort Exercise University of Maryland Medical Center: Glutamine PubChem.

Soares S, Ferreira-Junior JB, Pereira MC, et al. Dissociated time course of muscle damage recovery between single and multi-joint exercises in highly resistance trained men. J Strength Cond Res. Freidenreich DJ, Volek JS.

Immune responses to resistance exercise. Urso ML. Anti-inflammatory interventions and skeletal muscle injury: benefit or detriment? McGlory C, Devries MC, Phillips SM. Skeletal muscle and resistance exercise training; the role of protein synthesis in recovery and remodeling.

Petersen AM, Pedersen BK. The anti-inflammatory effect of exercise. Paulsen G, Mikkelsen UR, Raastad T, Peake JM. Leucocytes, cytokines and satellite cells: what role do they play in muscle damage and regeneration following eccentric exercise? Pahl HL. Vella L, Caldow MK, Larsen AE, et al.

Resistance exercise increases NF-κB activity in human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. Ji LL, Gomez-Cabrera MC, Steinhafel N, Vina J. Acute exercise activates nuclear factor NF -kappaB signaling pathway in rat skeletal muscle. Pedersen BK, Febbraio MA. Muscle as an endocrine organ: focus on muscle-derived interleukin Hirose L, Nosaka K, Newton M, et al.

Changes in inflammatory mediators following eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors. de Nadal E, Ammerer G, Posas F. Controlling gene expression in response to stress. Nat Rev Genet. Wischmeyer PE, Kahana M, Wolfson R, Ren H, Musch MM, Chang EB. Glutamine induces heat shock protein and protects against endotoxin shock in the rat.

Wischmeyer PE, Musch MW, Madonna MB, Thisted R, Chang EB. Glutamine protects intestinal epithelial cells: role of inducible HSP CAS Google Scholar.

Yoo CG, Lee S, Lee CT, Kim YW, Han SK, Shim YS. Anti-inflammatory effect of heat shock protein induction is related to stabilization of I kappa B alpha through preventing I kappa B kinase activation in respiratory epithelial cells.

Kiang JG, Tsokos GC. Heat shock protein 70 kDa: molecular biology, biochemistry, and physiology. Pharmacol Ther. Simar D, Malatesta D, Badiou S, Dupuy AM, Caillaud C. Physical activity modulates heat shock protein expression and limits oxidative damage accumulation in a healthy elderly population aged 60 90 years.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. Paulsen G, Hanssen KE, Rønnestad BR, et al. Strength training elevates HSP27, HSP70 and αB-crystallin levels in musculi vastus lateralis and trapezius. Paulsen G, Vissing K, Kalhovde JM, et al. Maximal eccentric exercise induces a rapid accumulation of small heat shock proteins on myofibrils and a delayed HSP70 response in humans.

Archer AE, Von Schulze AT, Geiger PC. Exercise, heat shock proteins and insulin resistance. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci. Krause M, Heck TG, Bittencourt A, et al. The chaperone balance hypothesis: the importance of the extracellular to intracellular HSP70 ratio to inflammation-driven type 2 diabetes, the effect of exercise, and the implications for clinical management.

Mediat Inflamm. Cahill CM, Waterman WR, Xie Y, Auron PE, Calderwood SK. Transcriptional repression of the prointerleukin 1beta gene by heat shock factor 1.

Singleton KD, Wischmeyer PE. Glutamine induces heat shock protein expression via O-glycosylation and phosphorylation of HSF-1 and Sp1. Activating protein factor binds in vitro to upstream control sequences in heat shock gene chromatin.

Voellmy R. Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr. Xiao X, Zuo X, Davis AA, et al. HSF1 is required for extra-embryonic development, postnatal growth and protection during inflammatory responses in mice. EMBO J. Garrido C, Brunet M, Didelot C, Zermati Y, Schmitt E, Kroemer G.

Heat shock proteins 27 and anti-apoptotic proteins with tumorigenic properties. Cell Cycle. Oishi Y, Taniguchi K, Matsumoto H, Ishihara A, Ohira Y, Roy RR. Muscle type-specific response of HSP60, HSP72, and HSC73 during recovery after elevation of muscle temperature.

Egan B, Zierath JR. Exercise metabolism and the molecular regulation of skeletal muscle adaptation. Cell Metab. Phillips BE, Williams JP, Gustafsson T, et al.

Molecular networks of human muscle adaptation to exercise and age. PLoS Genet. Takayama S, Reed JC, Homma S. Heat-shock proteins as regulators of apoptosis. Thompson HS, Scordilis SP, Clarkson PM, Lohrer WA. Acta Physiol Scand. Mikami T, Sumida S, Ishibashi Y, Ohta S. Endurance exercise training inhibits activity of plasma GOT and liver caspase-3 of mice [correction of rats] exposed to stress by induction of heat shock protein Shi Y, Tu Z, Tang D, et al.

The inhibition of LPS-induced production of inflammatory cytokines by HSP70 involves inactivation of the NF-kappaB pathway but not the MAPK pathways. Chu EK, Ribeiro SP, Slutsky AS. Heat stress increases survival rates in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated rats.

Crit Care Med. Schmidt JA, Abdulla E. Down-regulation of IL-1 beta biosynthesis by inducers of the heat-shock response. Benjamin IJ, Christians E. Exercise, estrogen, and ischemic cardioprotection by heat shock protein Circ Res. Whitham M, Halson SL, Lancaster GI, Gleeson M, Jeukendrup AE, Blannin AK.

Leukocyte heat shock protein expression before and after intensified training. Int J Sports Med. Wischmeyer PE. Glutamine and heat shock protein expression. Kim M, Wischmeyer PE. World Rev Nutr Diet. Wischmeyer PE, Riehm J, Singleton KD, et al. Glutamine attenuates tumor necrosis factor-alpha release and enhances heat shock protein 72 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

Xue H, Slavov D, Wischmeyer PE. Glutamine-mediated dual regulation of heat shock transcription factor-1 activation and expression.

Hamiel CR, Pinto S, Hau A, Wischmeyer PE. Glutamine enhances heat shock protein 70 expression via increased hexosamine biosynthetic pathway activity. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. Bevilacqua A, Fiorenza MT, Mangia F. A developmentally regulated GAGA box-binding factor and Sp1 are required for transcription of the hsp Clinical applications of L-glutamine: past, present, and future.

Ren X, Zou L, Zhang X, et al. Redox signaling mediated by thioredoxin and glutathione systems in the central nervous system. Antioxid Redox Signal.

Alves WF, Aguiar EE, Guimarães SB, et al. L-alanyl-glutamine preoperative infusion in patients with critical limb ischemia subjected to distal revascularization reduces tissue damage and protects from oxidative stress.

Ann Vasc Surg. Liu S, Yang Y, Song YQ, Geng J, Chen QL. Mol Med Rep. CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Chen G, Shi J, Qi M, Yin H, Hang C. Glutamine decreases intestinal nuclear factor kappa B activity and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression after traumatic brain injury in rats.

Inflamm Res. Lesueur C, Bôle-Feysot C, Bekri S, Husson A, Lavoinne A, Brasse-Lagnel C. Kozakowska M, Pietraszek-Gremplewicz K, Jozkowicz A, Dulak J. The role of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle injury and regeneration: focus on antioxidant enzymes.

J Muscle Res Cell Motil. McRae MP. Therapeutic benefits of glutamine: an umbrella review of meta-analyses. Biomed Rep. Ortega E, Giraldo E, Hinchado MD, et al. Castell L, Vance C, Abbott R, Marquez J, Eggleton P. Granule localization of glutaminase in human neutrophils and the consequence of glutamine utilization for neutrophil activity.

Gleeson M. Dosing and efficacy of glutamine supplementation in human exercise and sport training. Castell LM, Newsholme EA. The effects of oral glutamine supplementation on athletes after prolonged, exhaustive exercise.

Jepson MM, Bates PC, Broadbent P, Pell JM, Millward DJ. Relationship between glutamine concentration and protein synthesis in rat skeletal muscle. MacLennan PA, Brown RA, Rennie MJ. A positive relationship between protein synthetic rate and intracellular glutamine concentration in perfused rat skeletal muscle.

FEBS Lett. Boza JJ, Turini M, Moënnoz D, et al. Effect of glutamine supplementation of the diet on tissue protein synthesis rate of glucocorticoid-treated rats.

Salehian B, Mahabadi V, Bilas J, Taylor WE, Ma K. The effect of glutamine on prevention of glucocorticoid-induced skeletal muscle atrophy is associated with myostatin suppression. Bowtell JL, Gelly K, Jackman ML, Patel A, Simeoni M, Rennie MJ. Effect of oral glutamine on whole body carbohydrate storage during recovery from exhaustive exercise.

Blomstrand E, Essén-Gustavsson B. Changes in amino acid concentration in plasma and type I and type II fibres during resistance exercise and recovery in human subjects. Miles MP, Naukam RJ, Hackney AC, Clarkson PM.

Blood leukocyte and glutamine fluctuations after eccentric exercise. Kreider RB. Dietary supplements and the promotion of muscle growth with resistance exercise. Phillips GC. Glutamine: the nonessential amino acid for performance enhancement.

Curr Sports Med Rep. Wilkinson SB, Kim PL, Armstrong D, Phillips SM. Addition of glutamine to essential amino acids and carbohydrate does not enhance anabolism in young human males following exercise. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. Candow DG, Chilibeck PD, Burke DG, Davison KS, Smith-Palmer T.

Effect of glutamine supplementation combined with resistance training in young adults. Intestinal mucosal amino acid catabolism. Fürst P. New developments in glutamine delivery. Lima AA, Carvalho GH, Figueiredo AA, et al.

Effects of an alanyl-glutamine-based oral rehydration and nutrition therapy solution on electrolyte and water absorption in a rat model of secretory diarrhea induced by cholera toxin. Favano A, Santos-Silva PR, Nakano EY, Pedrinelli A, Hernandez AJ, Greve JM. Peptide glutamine supplementation for tolerance of intermittent exercise in soccer players.

Clinics Sao Paulo. Rogero MM, Tirapegui J, Pedrosa RdG, Pires ISdO, Alves IdC. Plasma and tissue glutamine response to acute and chronic supplementation with L-glutamine and L-alanyl-L-glutamine in rats. Nutrition Research. Lochs H, Roth E, Gasic S, Hübl W, Morse EL, Adibi SA. Splanchnic, renal, and muscle clearance of alanylglutamine in man and organ fluxes of alanine and glutamine when infused in free and peptide forms.

McCormack WP, Hoffman JR, Pruna GJ, et al. Effects of L-alanyl-L-glutamine ingestion on one-hour run performance. J Am Coll Nutr.

Wang W, Choi RH, Solares GJ, et al. L-alanylglutamine inhibits signaling proteins that activate protein degradation, but does not affect proteins that activate protein synthesis after an acute resistance exercise.

Pruna GJ, Hoffman JR, McCormack WP, et al. Effect of acute L-alanyl-L-glutamine and electrolyte ingestion on cognitive function and reaction time following endurance exercise.

Eur J Sport Sci. de Souza HM, Borba-Murad GR, Ceddia RB, Curi R, Vardanega-Peicher M, Bazotte RB. Rat liver responsiveness to gluconeogenic substrates during insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Hoffman JR, Ratamess NA, Kang J, et al. Examination of the efficacy of acute L-alanyl-L-glutamine ingestion during hydration stress in endurance exercise.

J Int Soc Sports Nutr. Article PubMed PubMed Central CAS Google Scholar. Hoffman JR, Williams DR, Emerson NS, et al. L-alanyl-L-glutamine ingestion maintains performance during a competitive basketball game. Leite JS, Raizel R, Hypólito TM, Rosa TD, Cruzat VF, Tirapegui J. L-glutamine and L-alanine supplementation increase glutamine-glutathione axis and muscle HSP in rats trained using a progressive high-intensity resistance exercise.

Raizel R, Leite JS, Hypólito TM, et al. Determination of the anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects of L-glutamine and L-alanine, or dipeptide, supplementation in rats submitted to resistance exercise. Br J Nutr.

Glutamine metabolism in lymphocytes of the rat. Coqueiro AY, Raizel R, Bonvini A, et al. Effects of glutamine and alanine supplementation on central fatigue markers in rats submitted to resistance training. Download references. Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, Avenida Professor Lineu Prestes , São Paulo, SP, , Brazil.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. RR and JT were responsible for all the steps of the review. The figure was drawn by RR.

Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. Correspondence to Raquel Raizel. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.

Reprints and permissions. Raizel, R. Role of glutamine, as free or dipeptide form, on muscle recovery from resistance training: a review study. Nutrire 43 , 28 Download citation. Received : 23 August Accepted : 07 November Published : 05 December Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Download PDF. Abstract Background Glutamine plays a key role in several essential metabolic processes and is an important modulator of the heat shock protein HSP response, a crucial mechanism to maintain cellular homeostasis and to promote cell resistance to injury and death.

Main body of the abstract The kDa HSP HSP70 expression is enhanced by glutamine, via the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, which inhibits the NF-κB pathway regenerating and recovering myofibers through the regulation of the early inflammatory response to muscle injury, which may be impaired by local and systemic inflammatory injury due to reduced intracellular levels of HSP Short conclusion Studies show that chronic oral administration of free l -glutamine or the dipeptide can attenuate the injury and inflammation induced by intense aerobic and exhaustive exercise.

l-Alanylglutamine inhibits signaling proteins that activate protein degradation, but does not affect proteins that activate protein synthesis after an acute resistance exercise Article 03 April Leucine-enriched essential amino acids attenuate inflammation in rat muscle and enhance muscle repair after eccentric contraction Article Open access 11 May Amino acid supplementation and impact on immune function in the context of exercise Article Open access 14 December Use our pre-submission checklist Avoid common mistakes on your manuscript.

Background Glutamine is a versatile amino acid, abundant in the plasma and skeletal muscle, accounting for most of the intramuscular free amino acid content.

Physical exercise and heat shock proteins One of the most basic mechanisms of cellular defence includes the expression of HSP to neutralize harmful agents and events, induce cell protection and tolerance to injury, and warrant maximum cell survival in the skeletal muscle [ 82 ].

Full size image. Conclusions Although studies are contradictory regarding the effect of free glutamine supplementation on muscle injury and inflammation, due to the high intestinal and hepatic metabolism with consequently decreased availability of consuming organs and cells of the immune system, current evidence indicate that oral supplementation with free l -glutamine or the dipeptide provides an effective alternative for increasing plasma and muscle glutamine concentrations.

Abbreviations CK: Creatine kinase DIP: l -alanyl- l -glutamine GABA: γ-Aminobutyrate GSH: Glutathione HSE: Heat shock element HSF: Heat shock factor HSP: Heat shock proteins HSP kDa protein family IL: Interleukin LDH: Lactate dehydrogenase LIF: Leukaemia inhibitory factor MCP: Monocyte chemotactic protein MDC: Chemokine derived from macrophage PepT: Intestinal transporter ROS: Reactive oxygen species SLC: Solute carrier TNF: Tumour necrosis factor uPA: Fractalkine and urokinase plasminogen activator VEGF: Vascular endothelial growth factor.

References Newsholme P, Procopio J, Lima MM, Pithon-Curi TC, Curi R. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Curi R, Lagranha CJ, Doi SQ, Sellitti DF, Procopio J, Pithon-Curi TC.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Szondy Z, Newsholme EA. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Szondy Z, Newsholme EA. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Ardawi MS. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Windmueller HG. CAS PubMed Google Scholar Newsholme EA, Crabtree B, Ardawi MS.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Ardawi MS, Newsholme EA. CAS PubMed Google Scholar Lacey JM, Wilmore DW. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Wirén M, Magnusson KE, Larsson J.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Curi TC, De Melo MP, De Azevedo RB, Zorn TM, Curi R. Article CAS Google Scholar Ardawi MS, Newsholme EA.

Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Bode BP. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Mackenzie B, Erickson JD.

Video

The Worst Supplements Everyone Takes For Muscle Growth (Science Explained) L-Glutamine is produced by Thermogenic pre-workout supplements body and Wxercise in everyday foods, exercize is also a popular supplement due to Glutamine and exercise potential eexercise and performance benefits. Glutamine exists in Glutaminw Glutamine and exercise forms, L-glutamine and D-glutamine, which only vary in molecular structure. L-Glutamine is an amino acid a building block of protein. Amino acids and proteins play many vital roles in our body. Specifically, glutamine helps with the transport of carbon and nitrogen used for cell division and growth in our bodies and plays roles in neural function, intestinal function, and boosting our immune system. Glutamine and exercise

Author: Malajora

0 thoughts on “Glutamine and exercise

Leave a comment

Yours email will be published. Important fields a marked *

Design by ThemesDNA.com