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Protein intake and cognitive function

Protein intake and cognitive function

A life course approach to cognitive Antioxidant supplements online a model Pre-workout nutrition guide cognitive aging fujction development? We found the positive associations Ontake dietary protein Xnd and protein intake from total aand, total meat, Meal diary log cgonitive legumes intakd cognitive function in adults aged 60 years and older, while functino milk and milk products were negatively associated with cognitive function. Acknowledgement We thank all individuals at the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention who were responsible for the planning and administering of NHANES and making the datasets of NHANES available on their website. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Boström G, Freyhult E, Virhammar J, Alcolea D, Tumani H, Otto M, et al. The survey was approved by the institutional review committees of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the National Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention.


This Neurologist Shows You How You Can Avoid Cognitive Decline - Dr. Dale Bredesen on Health Theory Proyein To examine the association of protein intake Slimming Aid different sources Meal diary log cognitive decline. Prtein Our analysis included 3, participants aged Ptotein years from the China Health functiion Nutrition Survey. Cognition was assessed in, and Diet intake was assessed using weighing methods in combination with h dietary recalls for three consecutive days at each survey. Results: Participants consumed quintile 1: 0. Conclusion: Increasing animal protein consumption in a population with plant dominant diets may help to prevent cognitive decline.

Protein intake and cognitive function -

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Mediterranean Diet, Alzheimer Disease Biomarkers and Brain Atrophy in Old Age. Bayer-Carter JL, Green PS, Montine TJ, VanFossen B, Baker LD, Watson GS, et al. Diet intervention and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Arch Neurol. Thijssen EH, Verberk IM, Stoops E, Boxer AL, Teunissen CE.

Delaby C, Julian A, Page G, Ragot S, Lehmann S, Paccalin M. NFL strongly correlates with TNF-R1 in the plasma of AD patients, but not with cognitive decline. Chatterjee P, Zetterberg H, Goozee K, Lim CK, Jacobs KR, Ashton NJ, et al. J Neuroinflamm. Verberk IMW, Laarhuis MB, van den Bosch KA, Ebenau JL, van Leeuwenstijn M, Prins ND, et al.

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Lancet Neurol. Benedet AL, Milà-Alomà M, Vrillon A, Ashton NJ, Pascoal TA, Lussier F, et al. Differences Between Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Levels Across the Alzheimer Disease Continuum. JAMA Neurol. Kiddle SJ, Steves CJ, Mehta M, Simmons A, Xu X, Newhouse S, et al.

Transl Psychiatry. Sattlecker M, Kiddle SJ, Newhouse S, Proitsi P, Nelson S, Williams S, et al. Müller M, Carter S, Hofer MJ, Campbell IL. Review: The chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligands CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 in neuroimmunity—a tale of conflict and conundrum.

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Millar SR, Navarro P, Harrington JM, Shivappa N, Hébert JR, Perry IJ, et al. Dietary score associations with markers of chronic low-grade inflammation: a cross-sectional comparative analysis of a middle- to older-aged population.

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The LM II test is an assessment of delayed memory; the participants were asked to recall the two stories 30 min after the stories were read.

Scores were calculated by adding the number of elements of the story that were recalled. The maximum score for both immediate and delayed recall is 50 points.

Higher scores indicate better memory function. The DST was used to evaluate verbal memory function. The DST is the sum of forward Digit Span Forward; DSF and backward Digit Span Backward; DSB task subscales.

In the DSF, the participant is required to memorize and repeat a sequence of numbers. In the DSB, the participants are required to memorize a sequence and repeat it in reverse.

The score ranges of the DST, DSF, and DSB are from 0 to 24, 0 to 12, and 0 to 12, respectively. The VMST was used to evaluate visual memory function.

The VMST is the sum of forward Visual Memory Span Forward; VMSF and backward Visual Memory Span Backward; VMSB task subscales. In the VMSF, the examiner touches random square sequences shown on a test paper, and the participants are required to repeat this sequence.

In the VMSB, the participants are required to memorize and repeat the sequence in reverse. The score ranges for the VMST, VMSF, and VMSB are from 0 to 26, 0 to 14, and 0 to 12, respectively. The AVLT was used to evaluate memory and learning function. In this test, 15 nouns list A were read by the examiner, followed by free recall by the participants five times consecutively.

After the fifth recall, the examiner read another list of 15 new words, followed by free recall by the participants.

Then, the participants were asked to carry out free recall of list A immediate recall. Twenty minutes later, the participants were asked to again carry out free recall of list A delayed recall.

TMT Part A TMT-A and Part B TMT-B were conducted to evaluate attention and executive function. TMT-A especially evaluates processing speed of the attention, and TMT-B especially evaluates working memory. Working memory involved in the performance of TMT-B includes cognitive flexibility in executive function and divided attention and alternating attention Both parts of the TMT consisted of 25 scattered circles drawn on the examination paper.

In TMT-A, the circles were numbered from 1 to 25, and the participant was asked to draw lines to connect the numbers in order as quickly as possible. In TMT-B, the circles included either numbers from 1 to 13 or the first 12 letters of the Japanese Hiragana alphabet.

Participants were required to connect the numbers and letters alternately. Faster performance in these examinations indicates higher attention and executive function. Perceptual-motor function is also involved in the TMT, as participants need to coordinate the processing of visual information with the rapid movement of their fingers.

Verbal fluency tests in which participants are asked to generate as many words as possible according to prescribed cues within a minute were used as verbal function measurements. The Similarities subtest of WAIS-III was conducted to evaluate language comprehension and logical categorical thinking ability.

In this task, the examiner verbally presents two words with a common concept, and participants are asked how these words are similar. The score range for this task is from 0 to Psychological and social functions were evaluated with WHOJ, SF 26 — 28 , the Japan Science and Technology Agency Index of Competence to Assess Functional Capacity [JST-IC 29 ], and the abbreviated version of the Lubben social network scale [LSNS-6 30 ] and based on the anxiety of forgetfulness.

SF was used to measure health-related QOL. SF is composed of 36 questions and, when scored, yields 8 domains. Ten items assess limitations in physical activities Physical functioning , 4 items assess problems with work or other daily activities as a result of physical health problems Role physical , 2 items assess limitations due to pain Bodily pain , 5 items assess personal health and the expectation of changes in health General health , 4 items measure energy and tiredness Vitality , 2 items examine the effect of physical and emotional health on normal social activities Social functioning , 3 items measure problems with work or other daily activities as a result of emotional problems Role emotional , and 5 items assess happiness, nervousness and depression Mental health.

All domains were scored from 0 to based on the Japanese national standard score, and higher scores showed better QOL. JST-IC was used to measure higher vital function. LSNS-6 was used to assess social interaction and to screen for social isolation.

Three of the LSNS-6 items relate to kinship ties, and the remaining three relate to non-kin ties. The total scale score is the sum of all items range: 0— Clinical laboratory values were measured before and after the intervention period to assess the safety of Amino LP7.

The following blood parameters were measured: white blood cell WBC count, red blood cell RBC count, hemoglobin Hb , hematocrit Ht , platelet count, total protein, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, sodium, chlorine, potassium, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting plasma glucose concentration FPG , and glycated hemoglobin HbA1c.

To determine if the baseline concentrations of blood amino acids and metabolites changed, these concentrations were measured under fasting after the intervention. The urine parameters urine protein, urine glucose, and urine occult blood were measured before and after the intervention.

Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, and body mass index BMI measurements were conducted before and after intervention. The full study population was analyzed based on the intention-to-treat concept. The main analysis was the analysis of covariance ANCOVA to compare the 3gIG and 6gIG to the PCG.

The covariates were age, gender, education level, BMI, and diastolic blood pressure, which are expected to affect cognitive function, and the pre-value of each dependent variable. In the subanalysis, one-way analysis of variance 1-way ANOVA was used to compare the PCG, 3gIG, and 6gIG.

Statistical tests for each endpoint were conducted at the two-sided significance level of 0. Multiple comparisons between groups were conducted using Dunnett's method. In this exploratory analysis, the effects of Amino LP7 were judged by both the estimates of mean differences and the statistical results because of the issue of statistical multiplicity between outcomes.

These interpretations of the statistical results were consistent with the view of the American Statistical Association In addition, we examined the probability that the obtained statistical results would appear in the situation where Amino LP7 was not effective and have discussed the interpretation of the results.

All statistical analyses were performed using R ver. The mean intake rate of the compositions was Two participants in the 6gIG group dropped out for health reasons unrelated to this study.

There were no significant differences observed in age, gender, education, MMSE-J, MoCA-J, WHOJ, and TMIG-IC among the three groups. As primary outcomes, scores of the dependent variables for cognitive function in each group are shown in Table 2.

The time of TMT-B in the 6gIG group improved by The results of other measurements of the cognitive function battery WMS-R, AVLT, verbal fluency, and WAIS-III were not significant between groups LM I, LM II, DSF, DSB, DST, VMSF, VMSB, VMST, AVLT immediate recall, AVLT delayed recall, TMT-A, verbal fluency tasks, Similarities.

Table 2. The mean scores and ANCOVA results of cognitive tests before and after intervention. Figure 2. TMT-B before and after intervention for each group.

The mean values were plotted and the standard deviations were displayed as error bars. As secondary outcomes, scores of the psychosocial function in each group are shown in Table 3. We conducted ANCOVA between groups for these dependent variables as well as the dependent variables for cognitive function.

The ANCOVA adjusted for multiplicity by Dunnett's method in the main analysis showed that the differences between the PCG and the 3gIG were not significant for any of the above variables. For other measured variables, the effects of the group were not significant by ANCOVA SF Physical functioning, SF Role physical, SF Bodily pain, SF General health, SF Vitality, SF Social functioning, SF Role emotional, SF Mental health, JST-IC Technology usage, JST-IC Information Practice, JST-IC Life management, anxiety of forgetfulness.

Table 3. The mean scores and ANCOVA results of psychosocial functions before and after intervention. By comparing the 6gIG and PCG, 4 out of 32 outcomes, including primary and secondary outcomes, showed significant results.

In addition, these 4 outcomes showed consistently that the 6gIG showed a stronger effect than the PCG. There were no abnormalities or fluctuations in clinical laboratory values, urine laboratory test results, vital data or BMI that could lead to safety concerns.

The baseline concentrations of the seven essential amino acids included in this study did not increase under fasting. The assessment of safety was made through medical interviews with each subject, and no issues related to these interventions were reported.

The participants who dropped out from the 6gIG did not do so because of side effects of the intervention. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of intake of Amino LP7 on cognitive function as the primary outcome and psychosocial function as the secondary outcome in middle-aged and older adults.

The results demonstrated that attention and cognitive flexibility assessed by TMT-B was improved in the 6gIG, whereas no significant changes were observed in either the 3gIG or PCG.

An effect of intervention on TMT-B was observed, and the s improvement of 6gIG was similar to the intervention effects reported by previous intervention studies 32 , The faster performance of the TMT-B suggests the improvement of the ability to concentrate on the task, pay attention to multiple tasks and memorize information needed for doing tasks, which is related with working memory.

These results indicate that daily intake of 6 g of amino LP7 contributes to improved attention and executive function. In addition, psychological health and social interaction were also improved in the 6gIG group.

A good WHOJ score indicates positive emotion cheerful, active, fresh, interesting and vigorous emotion , and expanding social networks indicate improved social interaction.

Although there was a potential limitation in the interpretation of the results because of multiple testing due to the study design, all 4 statistically significant results showed that Amino LP7 had positive effects only in the 6gIG. These results suggested that 6gIG may have an effect on cognitive function.

Two models can be considered for understanding why 6gIG was effective in improving attention and executive function and psychosocial function. The first model is that the intake of essential amino acids directly affects brain function through the transfer of amino acids to the brain.

The effect of the intervention on attention and executive function in the 6gIG suggests that the intake of Amino LP7 affected frontal lobe function.

If the intake of Amino LP7 had an effect on improving general health, there should have been an improvement in processing speed, as seen in an exercise-based intervention Given that there was no change in processing speed and that the intervention had an effect on only working memory, intake of Amino LP7 perhaps had a specific positive effect on frontal lobe function.

The second model is that Amino LP7 brings about improvement in psychosocial function, and changes in behavior in daily life led to improvement in attention and executive function. A study on social interactions showed that older people with more satisfactory interactions are at lower risk of developing dementia An intervention study focusing on social interactions showed improvements in verbal memory and working memory due to the acquisition of new intellectual skills that accompany social interaction In a study that examined the effects of social interaction among cognitive interventions, intervention via acquisition of new intellectual skills through analog games was found to affect visual working memory, and the effect increased with social interaction It is also possible that intake of Amino LP7 first improved psychological health, which in turn led to improved social interaction and attention and executive function.

Furthermore, it is possible that the two models mentioned above had a synergistic effect. No intervention effect was observed with 3gIG in either model, suggesting that additional doses of Amino LP7 were ineffective at low doses and that a dose of 6 g or more was required per day.

It is not possible to elucidate the mechanism based solely on the results of this study, which aimed to investigate the intervention effect of essential amino acid intake.

Our initial hypothesis regarding this composition, Amino LP7 8 , was based on the amino acid influx rate to the brain, which would reflect the requirement for each amino acid to maintain brain homeostasis against neurodegenerative processes; we composed a mixture of seven essential amino acids rich in leucine, phenylalanine, and lysine to directly match the ratios associated with the brain influx rate.

It is possible that Amino LP7 acts via multiple mechanisms, including neurotransmitter compensation 8 and competitive inhibition of neurotoxic substance influx into the brain. As the constituents of Amino LP7 have high rates of influx into the brain via specific transporters e.

These metabolites are known to exert proinflammatory effects that induce neuroinflammation 40 , 41 , and thus, competitive inhibition of these neurotoxic metabolites may be involved in the efficacy observed herein. To clarify the mechanism underlying the improvement in attention and executive function via ingestion of Amino LP7, it is necessary to measure neurotransmitters and brain inflammation in human studies.

As mentioned in the previous paragraph, the improvement of attention and executive function may be preceded by the improvement of psychosocial function.

Of the seven amino acids used in this study, some amino acids such as tryptophan and phenylalanine may have antidepressant-like effects associated with mental health 42 , A study of community dwelling older adults in Japan found an association between frequency of going out and depression 44 , and it is possible that prevention of depressive mood caused by tryptophan intake activated daily activities.

In our study, the blood sample was collected under fasting condition to evaluate the safety of the intervention. Evaluating the dynamics of amino acid concentrations immediately after ingestion will help elucidate the mechanism in the future.

Based on the cognitive reserve hypothesis, it is possible to delay the onset of dementia by improving cognitive function in normal conditions 1 , Improvement of attention and executive function associated with frontal lobe function by ingestion of Amino LP7 may counteract not only the development of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease but also cognitive decline associated with aging.

It would be of great significance if actual behaviors could be transformed to positive ones for health via easily accessible interventions such as supplements. In the present study, it was possible to confirm the effect of intervention on attention and executive function, but there was no effect on learning function, which was observed in a previous study conducted in mice.

The reason for this lack of effect was that the participants in this study were healthy adults with no impairment in learning function. To examine the effect of essential amino acid intake on learning function, it may be necessary to perform the experiment in terms of recovery of cognitive decline, not prevention of cognitive disorder.

This finding may also be related to the lack of a deliberately created low-protein state. No improvement in QOL or elimination of forgetfulness was observed in any of the intervention groups. It is suggested that short-term intervention with Amino LP7 for 3 months does not affect general subjective health in daily life.

In the 6gIG, which showed an intervention effect on mental function and social interaction, subjective QOL may be improved by continuing the intervention.

This study has a few limitations. The first is that the improvement of social interaction was indicated by a questionnaire, and it was not possible to evaluate what kind of interaction was specifically affected.

Although it is difficult to objectively evaluate social interaction, it is important to evaluate whether the effects of essential amino acid intake also affect the total amount of communication and daily enjoyment in order to enhance the significance of the intervention.

The second point is that the intervention period was only 3 months long, and the long-term effects were not considered. From the perspective of dementia prevention, it is necessary to examine whether the effect of an intervention on attention and cognitive flexibility continues for a long duration.

Moreover, it is not clear whether the intervention effect remains after intake is stopped. Long-term observational studies are also valuable in examining whether the efficacy of amino acids impacts the prevention of future cognitive decline.

Third, due to the exploratory nature of this study, there should be a potential limitation in the interpretation of the results because of multiple testing due to the study design.

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Nutrition is one of the most essential and changeable environmental Prorein that can functino brain development, cognition ability and academic performance. Several studies from anf United Adn, Australia, Fenland and andd United Kingdom examined the effects of healthy dietary consumption on cognitive function Liver detox for weight loss both children cognituve adolescents, and the results showed that there was a positive association between healthier foods e.

Besides, mushrooms cognitivve nuts [ 14 ], dietary fiber [ 15 intaake and regular ihtake [ 1316 ] were cognitivd with improved cognitive performance.

Children with malnutrition or insufficient funtcion intake tended to have fuction restraints and developmental disabilities compared fhnction those who had an adequate nutrient fjnction [ Stay cool with thirst-quenching options18 ], and the malnourished Protein intake and cognitive function often exhibited lower academic intske in school annd well-nourished cgnitive [ 19 ].

Cognitiive, people consume a cignitive of foods rather than only one food dunction 20 ]. The evaluation Prottein a single food an nutrient often ignores their complex interactions, covnitive may not reflect fuhction total diet consumed by an individual covnitive 20Alternative depression treatment ].

Therefore, it Strategic thinking in athletics important to Protekn the cognitkve as a whole. Functionn the principal components analysis PCAcomplex diet and multiple food groups are taking into account vunction pattern classification, instead of abd nutrients, specific foods or food groups.

In cognitivee past decades, the annd pattern of most Chinese cgnitive and adolescents was nitake consisted of cereal and plant-based foods, and then gradually changed kntake a Western pattern dominated Nutritious meal options dessert, fast food, animal-based food Proteinn recent runction [ xognitive Meal diary log.

Additionally, pickled cognihive and fried foods are still cognnitive in some regions of China. Concerning the relationships between diets and cognition, fuunction and more Prktein began Protfin investigate the effects of dietary patterns on cognitive functions.

Henriksson et al. Nurliyana et al. Northstone et al. Most intaek the existing studies have focused on the relationship between dietary pattern and cognition intak the elderly, and only few studies ajd investigated on both children intame adolescents.

Although the intaoe studies functtion the associations between dietary pattern Protein intake and cognitive function cognitive ability during childhood adn adolescence [ 24 Protein intake and cognitive function, 252627Glycogen replenishment during high-intensity training ], vunction data Protein intake and cognitive function on Funcyion is still extremely limited, especially on Chinese children and adolescents.

The Cognktive was carried out at Peking University. It is a nearly nationwide, comprehensive, longitudinal social survey that intends to serve research needs regarding PProtein large adn of social Insulin delivery systems in aand China.

After matching Prorein screening against cognotive, family cogbitive community databases, we excluded Natural metabolism-boosting techniques individuals whose Prrotein values were unknown, intke, not applicable and missing. Finally, children with complete information were fuunction in the analyses, and the participation rate conitive The flow diagram of subject funnction is shown in Fig.

The children Proteln Meal diary log divided by gender Proteij dietary patterns were cognitiv using cognitige food frequency questionnaire FFQ administered by trained investigators during face-to-face interview. This FFQ was adapted from a simplified food frequency questionnaire with good reliability and validity [ 3031 ].

The foods were classified into 8 categories: meat, aquatic products, fresh vegetables and fruits, milk and dairy products, beans and bean products, eggs, pickled food, and puffed and fried food. More details can be found in Supplementary File 1. All participants were exposed to the following questions: i whether you had eaten these eight groups of foods during the last 3 months, and ii the average frequency of foods intake per week in the past 3 months.

Two times or more than 2 times per week were recorded according to their respective times. PCA method was used to identify major dietary patterns, while factor analysis was conducted to assess the frequency of food groups from Abd [ 32 ]. Variance rotation was then employed to improve the separation of the factors.

Finally, the factor scores were divided cognjtive four quartile Q groups, in which Q1 and Q4 represented the lowest and highest levels of dietary pattern scores, respectively. In the CFPSall participants aged 10 and older performed the cognitive ability tests including vocabulary and mathematics tests by themselves after receiving information collection from individual self-answer questionnaire.

The theoretical basis of the CFPS cognitive ability tests was the design of Guttman Scale in psychometry, which showed good reliability and validity [ 33 ]. The American psychologist Cattell has divided cognitive ability into two components: fluid intelligence and crystalized intelligence [ 34 ].

Fluid intelligence is on the basis of neurophysiological development, such as perception and memory. Crystal intelligence refers to the skills acquired through the accumulation of acquired knowledge and experience, such as vocabulary, calculation, speech understanding and common sense.

The CFPS applied both vocabulary and mathematics tests as measurement tools to collect the crystal intelligence scores of study participants [ 2935 ].

The vocabulary test was consisted of 34 Chinese characters drawn from the language textbooks used in primary and secondary schools and sorted in ascending order of difficulty. To make the test more efficient, all survey respondents were assigned to one of three entry points, based on their self-reported highest level of education.

The respondents were asked to recognize the increasingly difficult characters one by one until they failed to recognize three consecutive characters. The final test score was based on the rank order of the last character recognized by each respondent, ranging from 0 lowest to 34 highest.

The mathematics test was consisted of 24 mathematical questions. The procedures of mathematics test were similar to vocabulary test. The mathematics test scores were categorized based on the same rank-order rule as that in the vocabulary test, which recorded from 0 lowest to 24 highest [ 36 ].

In the statistical analysis, both mathematics and vocabulary test scores were used as continuous variables raw scores and ordinal Prrotein variables Q1-Q4. Sociodemographic and family characteristics were considered as covariates, including gender, age, nationality, household registration, school type, parental educational level, family learning environment, annual household income and family size [ 3738 ].

Nationality was classified into two categories: Han nationality and minority nationality. Household registration included urban and countryside. Parental educational levels were categorized into three groups: a low completed primary school or lower ; b medium completed junior middle school but did not undergo the tertiary entrance exam ; and c high took a tertiary entrance exam or higher.

Family learning environment was classified as a good, b neutrality, and c bad. The data of family characteristics were obtained from children, family and community questionnaires.

The data were initially analyzed to generate descriptive statistics. PCA with varimax rotation was used to categorize the standardized food items.

This method has been described in detail elsewhere [ 10 ]. Foods with factor loadings above 0. Labels were given to different components, even though these did not perfectly describe each underlying pattern.

Indeed, they facilitated the reporting and discussion of results. Cognitive ability was assessed using both mathematics and vocabulary tests in the CFPS.

Firstly, we analyzed the association between the covariates and cognitive ability of children using the chi-square test. Then, ordinal logistic regression was used to determine the associations among covariates, dietary Proteim and cognitive ability.

In Model I, we adjusted for gender, age, nationality and household registration to ensure that the outcomes were independent of the common characteristics of children and adolescents.

In Model III, apart from the variables included in Models I and II, we additionally adjusted for family characteristics, family learning environment, annual household income and family size. All analyses were carried out using STATA The characteristics of each participant are shown in Table 1.

Approximately half of the participants were girls Nearly The factor loadings of different dietary patterns are presented in Table 2. The relationships between cognitive ability and dietary patterns both as continuous variables and quartile in the three models are demonstrated in Table 5.

Thus, it is of great importance for families to select a proper dietary pattern for children and adolescents. Besides, this study found that children who lived in the rural areas and a large family tended to have diminished cognitive ability.

The reason might be that child poverty is common among rural communities and large families. Our findings of the relationship between annual household income and cognition ability also supported this view, which were consistent with studies in Australia and America [ 4243 ].

In our study, about half of the parents finished the elementary school, and Above all, the economic status and educational attainment in our country still need to be improved substantially.

Cognitive ability has been shown to be affected by a good diet e. These findings were consistent with our results concerning the associations between dietary patterns and cognition ability in children.

Therefore, it is necessary to meet the intake of protein, especially high-quality protein. Milk, beans and eggs are the major sources of high-quality protein, which play an important role in the daily meals.

The analysis of food consumption patterns in China has revealed that the annual consumption of milk, bean, eggs and other food is increasing, but there is still a considerable gap between the actual and recommended dietary intakes of milk, beans and eggs [ 4748 ].

Previous studies in Kenya and South Korea demonstrated that higher intake of milk and dairy products was associated with better academic achievement [ 4449 ]. Another study [ 50 ] showed that higher milk consumption could improve overall nutritional status in Korea adolescents, and the well-nourished children often performed better than the malnourished children cognitivs 19 ].

In addition, higher consumption of meat or egg during breakfast might contribute to improved cognitive ability in youth [ 51 ]. Milk, dairy products, beans, bean products and eggs are good sources of high-quality protein. A previous study indicated that there was a positive correlation between academic performance in elementary and middle school and frequent consumption of dairy and eggs [ 52 ].

The proteins positively influence hippocampal function and childhood development of higher cognitive processes [ 53 ]. An animal research demonstrated that the tasks mediated through hippocampal function were mainly affected by protein consumption [ 54 ].

Collectively, high intake of protein was significantly related to better cognition in both children and adolescents. In the recent years, the contradiction between food supply and demand in China is not only manifested by the excessive production of grain and meat, but also the shortage of milk, beans, eggs, fruits and other food products.

: Protein intake and cognitive function

Nutrition and cognition - Wikipedia Morris MC, Prohein CC, Wang Y, Protein intake and cognitive function FM, Bennett DA, Fynction NT. History of diabetes was also self-reported. Indeed, ijtake facilitated functtion reporting and trim visceral fat of Protein intake and cognitive function. A prospective study evaluating the effects of a nutritional supplement intervention on cognition, mood states, and mental performance in video gamers. Copy to clipboard. Statistical analysis: MRD, ZP. Prospective studies investigating dietary patterns have highlighted the importance of foods rich in protein including grains, nuts, beans, fish, and poultry on the prevention of dementia 9 ,
Protein intake associated with less cognitive decline - Harvard Health S PubMed Abstract CrossRef Protein intake and cognitive function Text Google Intqke. Unlike other Fat distribution and risk factors, our investigation Protein intake and cognitive function the role of improvement ccognitive decline Radiate protein intake on cognitive performance in older adults. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. However, an adverse association between higher protein intake from milk and milk products and cognitive function was observed. Fukui S, Schwarcz R, Rapoport SI, Takada Y, Smith RQ. Guoying H, Yu X, Hongwei X. Baumgart M, Snyder HM, Carrillo MC, Fazio S, Kim H, Johns H.
Background All foods and condiments for the home food inventory at the beginning and end of the 3-day survey period were measured using scales and recorded by trained interviewers. Gerontol Geriatr Med. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Levey AS, Stevens LA, Schmid CH, Zhang YL, Castro AF 3rd, Feldman HI, et al. Article PubMed Google Scholar Shivappa N, Hebert JR, Marcos A, Diaz LE, Gomez S, Nova E, et al. Leucine competes with kynurenine for blood-to-brain transport and prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced depression-like behavior in mice. Nanri A, Mizoue T, Kurotani K, Goto A, Oba S, Noda M, et al.
Protein intake and cognitive function

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