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Self-care practices for diabetes

Self-care practices for diabetes

Access to raw data was restricted only to practics study investigators. The patients Swlf-care this study showed higher rates of self-monitoring than those found in the study from Singapore [ 16 ]. Gunggu A, Thon CC, Lian CW: Predictors of diabetes self-management among type 2 diabetes patients. Obesity Res. Google Scholar Haque ANMN: By the numbers: The middle-income matrix. Participants generally reported that they do not regularly check their blood glucose level. Self-care practices for diabetes

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DSMES: Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support

Self-care practices for diabetes -

Table 1. Table 2. Self-care management practices among diabetic patients regarding nutrition, exercise. Table 3. Smoking practices among diabetic patients. from healthcare providers related to diet, On the other hand, The total mean percentage of received medical advice related to diet is The total mean percentage of received medical advice related to exercising is Additionally, The total mean percentage of received medical advice related to testing blood sugar is The mean percentage of self-care management practices for patients with type-2 DM in this study was Table 4.

Frequency and percentages of advice related to diet. Table 5. Frequency and percentages of advice related to exercise. Table 6. The current study results revealed that the total mean of following a good diet for diabetic patients is 3. Moreover, the results of the current study are consistent with the results of Al Johani et al.

The differences in the mean level of following a healthy diet between the current study results and previous study results could be attributed to the differences in the culture of patients included.

In addition, the differences could be attributed to the differences in the sample and sampling method. On the other hand, similarity with the study of Al Johani et al.

In the Arab context, there is a high probability that traditional social and cultural practices work against the efforts made by people with type-2 diabetes mellitus to maintain an optimal diet [10].

Regarding following exercise, the total mean of days of following good exercise among diabetic patients is 3. These results are not consistent with the results of Dedefo et al. In addition, these results are not consistent with the results of Al Johani et al.

Additionally, the percentage of the current study is higher than that reported in similar Asian studies. Moreover, the results of previous studies [13] [15] [16] [17] [21] showed that low mean score of exercise.

Differences could be attributed to the type of sample and differences in the mean age of the study sample, in which the age of patients play an important role in the process of exercise.

A possible reason for the large proportion of participants in the current study not exercising is that They may not be able to perform regular exercise due to general physical decline or poor health. This may be due to a lack of places for exercise and a lack of suitable environments in Saudi Arabia for activities such as walking.

The hot weather in Saudi Arabia is a further potential factor contributing to low physical exercise rates among the population in Saudi Arabia.

In addition, Saudi Arabian culture is quite unlike Asian culture in that it does not encourage other types of healthy activities for older people such as yoga and tai chi [10].

The current study results revealed that the mean of days in which the patients wash feet is 3. The total mean of days of conducting foot care practices is 2. These results are similar to the previous study results of [10] [15] [17], which showed that low mean score of foot care.

In contrast to the Bariyyah et al. On the other hand, the results of the current study are lower from what has been reported by Dedefo et al.

Moreover, the results of the current study are lower from what has been revealed by Al Johani et al. Low level of foot care among patients in the current study could be attributed to the large proportion of patients who are illiterate The current study results revealed that the mean of days in which the patients take recommended diabetes medication is 6.

The total mean of days of following medication practices is 5. The level of compliance of following medication practices by the patients is considered very well, this could be attributed to the fact that the patients are afraid of not taking their medication due to its fatal complication if not taken.

These results are somewhat consistent with the results of Al Johani et al. The patients in general especially not educated understand that the management of disease is only by taking medication.

In the current study, taking medication was the most commonly practiced form of self-care reported among patients, which clearly reflects a high level of dependence on medication. The current study results were consistent with the study of Alsomali [22] in Saudi Arabia, which showed that taking of medication among people with type 2 DM was prioritized over other diabetes self-care activities, as it is an easy task, and patients face fewer challenges taking medication.

Regarding self-care management of testing blood glucose practices, the current study results revealed that the mean of days in which the patients test their blood glucose is 3. The total mean of days of testing blood glucose is 2. These results are higher than what has been revealed by Dedfo et al.

The largest group of respondents was those who did not test blood glucose on any of the previous seven days On the other hand, the current study results are lower from what has been revealed by Alsomali [22], which revealed that more than half of the patients tested their blood sugar on two days in the last week or less.

These low levels, which revealed in the current study, could be explained by the absence of recommendations from healthcare providers regarding testing blood sugar, or a recommendation on the frequency of testing their blood sugar.

Similar studies suggest that blood sugar testing levels are generally low among diabetes patients, despite this being an essential part of diabetes control [15].

The patients in the current study are aware of the importance of testing their blood sugar level to manage their diabetes, and participants tested their blood sugar at times when they had eaten too much or were not sure if they had taken the correct medication dose. An explanation of this low adherence level regarding testing blood glucose could be the difficulties in using the glucometer at home; many patients have technical difficulties in testing their blood sugar levels, especially those aged 50 and above.

Another explanation could be attributed to the expensive status of the glucometer especially its sticks which prevent the patients from buying these sticks. The current study results revealed that more than half meaning that 8.

These results are lower from what has been by Noubiap et al. Low level of smoking among patients in the current study could be attributed to the Islamic approach within Saudi Arabia, in which smoking is forbidden in Islamic culture and religion.

Moreover, low percentage of smoking among patients in the current study could be attributed to the health education received by the patients and their health literacy in recent years since smoking interferes with insulin resistance and aggravates the micro- and macro-vascular complications of diabetes mellitus [26].

The study results revealed that the level of self-care management practices among patients with type 2 DM is not satisfactory, except in the medication domain. In addition, healthcare providers need to provide guidance and a treatment plan uniquely suited to each individual patient.

This can be achieved by health education presentations for the families of patients in order to improve their awareness about DM management. Future research needs to examine the relationship between other variables and diabetes self-care practices among Saudi adults with type 2 DM by using a mixed methods approach.

The study focused only on quantitative approach for describing and analysing issues pertaining to self-care management practices, mixed design often have border view than single approach.

In addition, the qualitative approach focused on the hidden issues related to self-care practices, which were not appeared in the study questionnaire.

The author declares no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper. and Al-Ganmi, A. Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, 7, Statistics Report aspx [ 3 ] Srinatha, K. Being active can also keep your blood glucose levels in check and your diabetes under control.

Regular monitoring of your blood sugar levels gives you the information you need to make decisions. Testing your blood sugar lets you know when your levels are on target and it informs your decisions on activity and food so that you can live life to the fullest.

Taking the right medications will help you have greater control over your diabetes and help you feel better. Insulin, pills that lower your blood sugar, aspirin, blood pressure medication, cholesterol-lowering medication are a few of the medicines used to reduce your risk of complications.

Encountering struggles with your diabetes control will happen. Female study participants more than male study participants reported to have been caring about foot hygiene and give more attention to choosing appropriate footwear.

A few participants had experience of some bad foot wound; one of them had to have leg amputation due to severe complication. Study participants said foot ulcers were inevitable to a person with diabetes sooner or later. We observed that study participants behaved in different ways in coping with their illness and diabetes self-care.

This grouping helps to see their relative level of self-care in relation to their illness coping strategies, as well as their attitude towards self-care Table 1. Overall, a comprehensive self-care practice among diabetes patients was uncommon.

The irregularity of blood sugar monitoring was the main shortcoming of diabetes control in this study. This is a precursor to the development of long term diabetes complications of diabetes.

As reported elsewhere in sub Saharan Africa and in Ethiopia, irregular blood sugar measurement was related with the lack of personal glucometers or lack of easy access to health facilities and laboratories [ 8 ]. Long intervals between clinic appointments was also reported as one of the reasons for taking the responsibility of self-adjusting medication dosages by patients with diabetes.

Provision of a comprehensive education program and task shifting from physicians to nurses or to a person specifically trained to perform a limited task such as delivery of diabetes education was found to be helpful improving patients care in busy diabetes clinics in Sub-Saharan African countries [ 13 ].

Food habits in the family and personal food preferences were among the serious challenges which made dietary adjustment difficult for people with diabetes. Participation in social gatherings and food related socio-cultural norms could pose serious impediments to effective diabetic control in Sub-Saharan Africa [ 9 , 12 ].

Physical exercise, regardless of weight or body mass index, is critical to effectively control blood sugar level and in reducing persistent hyperglycemia [ 2 , 12 ]. Lack of appropriate information and lack of motivation to engage in a regular physical exercise are common short comings of diabetes self-care practices [ 14 ].

For aged and ill individuals going to a gym regularly may not be feasible due to either cost or physical distance.

Thus, appropriate guidance needs to be given for the kind of exercise that can be done at home [ 15 ]. Injection site pain and abscess are common side effects that impede strict medication adherence among people with diabetes [ 16 ]. However, adherence to anti-diabetes medication was better of all self-care practices [ 17 ].

This could be due to either over reliance on medication or its free availability, or the ease to practice it compared to the other components which require more commitment [ 18 ]. Foot care was the least practiced diabetes self-care in our setting.

This could be due to lack of proper understanding of its importance or the consequences by persons with diabetes [ 18 ]. A proper diabetes education has shown a promising improvement on foot self-care practice [ 19 ]. Studies show that persons with diabetes experience disproportionately high rates of social and emotional difficulties compared to the general population.

Negative emotions such as frustration and feeling of helplessness contributed to poor self-care practices including poor blood sugar monitoring [ 7 , 20 ]. Even if some knew about diabetes association, they were not acquainted with any benefit that they could individually get from them.

This lack of information is commonly observed in both developed and developing countries [ 11 ]. These patients are tangled in fear and confusion that their self-care practices are not sufficient to assist their diabetes control.

This group are likely to be very frightened of the perceived complications [ 18 ]. These patients ignore their condition diabetes , and as a result refuse to discuss about it either with peers or join diabetes association.

Glycemic control in such patients tend to be poor and their chance of developing complications early is high [ 18 ]. In conclusion, Diabetes self-care is generally poor mainly due to insufficient guidance and support provided to persons with diabetes.

Greater attention needs to be given to improve patient education and support in diabetes clinics to ensure better self-care practices and avoid early development of complications.

There was minimum recall bias due to chronic nature of disease. Absence of multiple data collection methods, which is limited to interviews to patients enrolled only from public hospitals was a limitation of this study.

In addition, social desirability bias may be introduced despite the cautions taken during the interviews. Conceptualization: DT. Data curation: DT. Formal analysis: DT. Funding acquisition: DT. Investigation: DT. Methodology: DT YB. Project administration: DT.

Resources: DT YB. Software: DT. Supervision: DT YB. Validation: DT YB. Visualization: DT. Writing — original draft: DT. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Article Authors Metrics Comments Media Coverage Reader Comments Figures.

Abstract Background Self-care practices that include self-monitoring of blood sugar level, diet management, physical exercise, adherence to medications, and foot care are the cornerstones of diabetes management. Objective The objective of this study was to describe self-care practices among individuals with type II diabetes in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Methods A qualitative method was used to gather data from type II diabetes patients. Results Overall self-care practices were not adequate. Conclusion Diabetes patients largely depend on prescribed medications to control their blood sugar level. Atkin, Weill Cornell Medical College Qatar, QATAR Received: July 16, ; Accepted: December 12, ; Published: January 3, Copyright: © Tewahido, Berhane.

Funding: The authors received no specific funding for this work. Introduction Globally over 14 million people die each year from non-communicable diseases such as diabetes mellitus between the ages of 30 and 70, of which 85 per cent are in developing countries [ 1 ].

Methods The study was conducted in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. Results A total of thirteen in-depth interviews were conducted with type II diabetes patients.

Self-monitoring of blood sugar Participants generally reported that they do not regularly check their blood glucose level. Dietary practices Most study participants recognized diet as an essential component of self-care practice for people with diabetes.

Practices with regard to regular physical exercise Nearly all informants admitted that they do not exercise regularly. Taking diabetes medication regularly Most of the respondents consider their anti-diabetes medications as the most vital element of the diabetes management and their survival.

Regular foot care Foot care was the least recognized self-care practice by the study participants. Participants experiences of the self-care practices We observed that study participants behaved in different ways in coping with their illness and diabetes self-care. Download: PPT. Table 1.

category by utterances and respective characteristics. Discussion Overall, a comprehensive self-care practice among diabetes patients was uncommon. Limitations of the study Absence of multiple data collection methods, which is limited to interviews to patients enrolled only from public hospitals was a limitation of this study.

Author Contributions Conceptualization: DT. References 1. United Nations general assembly on non-communicable diseases Review UNGA. Hall V, Thomsen RW, Henriksen O, Lohse N. Diabetes in Sub Saharan Africa — Epidemiology and public health implications.

a systematic review. BMC Public Health. View Article Google Scholar 3. Tamiru Solomon, Alemseged Fessahaye. Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases among diabetic patients in southwest Ethiopia.

Ethiop J Health Sci. View Article Google Scholar 4. Berhe KK, Demissie A, Kahsay AB, Gebru HB. Diabetes self-care practices and associated factors among Type 2 diabetic patients in Tikur anbessa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia- a cross sectional study.

Self-care practices for diabetes Public Diabetex volume Self-care practices for diabetesArticle diabetrs Cite cor article. Metrics details. Levels of knowledge Sekf-care diabetes mellitus DM among newly diagnosed diabetics Boosting immune system capacity Bangladesh are unknown. This study assessed the relationship between knowledge and practices among newly diagnosed type 2 DM patients. Knowledge questions were divided into basic and technical sections. Chi square testing and multivariate logistic regression were conducted to examine the relationship between diabetes-related knowledge and self-care practices. Medindia » Articles Self-dare Lifestyle » Self-Care Practices in Diabetes Management. Diabetes mellitus DM is Self-care practices for diabetes practuces progressive metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia due Selg-care impairments Body toning mistakes insulin release, insulin Self-care practices for diabetes Arthritis exercises for muscle strengthening both. Diabetes mellitus was believed to Self-czre a disease ror mainly in developed countries, but recent findings reveal a rise in number of new cases of type 2 DM in developing countries with an earlier onset and associated complications. Diabetes-associated complications can lead to chronic morbidities and mortality. World Health Organization WHO estimates that more than million people are affected with DM worldwide. This number is likely to double in number by without any intervention. Diabetes self-care is an evolutionary process of improving knowledge or awareness in the social surroundings by figuring out how to cope with the complex nature of diabetes.

Self-care practices for diabetes -

Haque ANMN: By the numbers: The middle-income matrix. The Daily Star. Al-Shafaee AM, Al-Shukaili S, Rizvi Syed Gauher A, Al Farsi Y, Khan AM, Ganguly SS, Afifi M, Al Adawi S: Knowledge and perceptions of diabetes in a semi-urban Omani population.

BMC Publ Health. Rafique G, Azam I, White F: Knowledge, attitude and practice KAP survey of diabetes and its complications in people with diabetes attending a University hospital.

Proceedings of the Second Conference on DIMEMSEA: March Edited by: Liaquat A. Tham KY, Ong JJY, Tan DKL, How KY: How much do diabetic patients know about diabetes mellitus and its complications?. Ann Acad Med Singapore. Gul N: Knowledge, attitudes and practices of type 2 diabetic patients.

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. Shah VN, Kamdar PK, Shah N: Assessing the knowledge, attitudes and practice of type 2 diabetes among patients of Saurashtra region Gujarat.

Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Download references. We are highly acknowledged our respected teacher, colleague and statistical consultant Prof MA Hafez, Bangladesh Institute of Health Sciences BIHS for his guidance during statistical analysis.

We acknowledge Diabetic Association of Bangladesh and also thank the type 2 diabetic subjects who participated in the study. Department of Community Nutrition, Bangladesh Institute of Health Sciences BIHS , Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Department of Epidemiology, Bangladesh Institute of Health Sciences BIHS , Dhaka, Bangladesh. Institute of Health Economics, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Bangladesh Institute of Health Sciences BIHS , Dhaka, Bangladesh.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Correspondence to Farzana Saleh. FS: contributed her intellectual ability to conception and design of the research, analysis and interpretation of data; drafting the article, revising it critically for important intellectual content; and final approval of the version to be published.

SJM: contributed her intellectual ability to conception and design of the research, analysis and interpretation of data; drafting the article and revising it critically for important intellectual content; and final approval of the version to be published.

FA: contributed her intellectual ability to conception and design of the research, analysis and interpretation of data; drafting the article and revising it critically for important intellectual content; and final approval of the version to be published. HAB: Revision of manuscript for important intellectual content.

LA: Revision of manuscript for important intellectual content. All of the above authors read and approved the final manuscript.

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Reprints and permissions. Saleh, F. et al. Knowledge and self-care practices regarding diabetes among newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Public Health 12 , Download citation. Received : 01 April Accepted : 21 December Published : 26 December Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Skip to main content. Search all BMC articles Search. Download PDF.

Abstract Background Levels of knowledge about diabetes mellitus DM among newly diagnosed diabetics in Bangladesh are unknown.

Conclusions Newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics had similar levels of basic and technical knowledge of DM. Background Diabetes mellitus DM is a major disease that is becoming more prevalent, affecting more than million people worldwide. Methods A cross-sectional study design was adopted, and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients were selected conveniently in consideration of the inclusion and exclusion criteria from 19 healthcare centers.

Results Mean age of the respondents was Figure 1. Full size image. Discussion The available scientific knowledge concerning diabetes mellitus is an important resource to guide and educate diabetes patients concerning self-care.

Conclusions In this study, newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic subjects had similar levels of both basic and technical knowledge of DM.

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Correspondence to Debela Gela. This study was reviewed and approved by Research and Ethics Committee REC of School of Allied health sciences, Addis Ababa University.

Ethiopia is placed fourth among the top five countries of the African region members of the international diabetes federation.

This study aimed to determine the level of diabetes self-care practice and associated factors among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending public hospitals of the Tigray region. An institution-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in six selected hospitals of Tigray region from January to February Study participants were recruited using a systematic random sampling method.

Diabetes self-care practice was assessed using Summary Diabetes Self-Care Activities SDSCA assessment tool. The data were collected by trained nurses via face-to-face interview. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with self-care practices.

A total of patients with type 2 diabetes were included in this study. The mean SD age of the participant was 46 ± Less than half Surprisingly, only 68 The diabetes self-care practice in the region was found to be poor.

Where factors like, being an urban resident, age group between 49—63 years, not having a formal education, and having a personal glucometer at home were associated with good self-care practices. Health care providers might have to consider actions to act on the identified factors and improve the level of self-care practices of the patients.

Citation: Molalign Takele G, Weharei MA, Kidanu HT, Gebrekidan KG, Gebregiorgis BG Diabetes self-care practice and associated factors among type 2 diabetic patients in public hospitals of Tigray regional state, Ethiopia: A multicenter study.

PLoS ONE 16 4 : e Received: September 4, ; Accepted: April 6, ; Published: April 21, Copyright: © Molalign Takele et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All the datasets generated during this study and needed to replicate the results of this study are located within the paper. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Abbreviation: DM, Diabetes Mellitus; T2DM, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; AOR, Adjusted Odd Ratio; COR, Crude Odd Ratio; IDF, International Diabetes Federation; CI, Confidence Interval; SPSS, Statistical Package for Social Sciences; BMI, Body Mass Index; FBG, Fasting Blood Glucose; DKT, Diabetes Knowledge Test.

Diabetes Mellitus DM is one of the fastest-growing global health emergencies of the 21 st century [ 1 , 2 ]. According to the International Diabetes Federation IDF report in , an estimated million adults aged 20—79 years worldwide have diabetes and this figure is projected to be Ethiopia is placed fourth among the top five African member countries of IDF 32 countries , having 1.

Diabetes self-care practice includes physical activity, self-monitoring of blood glucose, adequate nutrition, foot care, and adherence to medications [ 3 ].

Self-care practices remains the mainstay management of diabetes, as the majority of the disease management is carried out by patients themselves or their families [ 4 ]. Diabetes care is complex and more demanding, which needs a better understanding of the disease beyond monitoring blood glucose levels [ 5 ].

Therefore, the cornerstone of managing type 2 diabetes mellitus T2DM is a healthy lifestyle, including a healthy diet, regular physical activity, not smoking, and maintaining a healthy body weight [ 6 , 7 ].

Even though, adherence to diabetes self-care practice has shown a remarkable reduction in the incidence and progression of DM complications [ 8 ], different studies in Ethiopia showed that it is poorly practiced [ 9 , 10 ].

Previous studies showed that, factors like duration of diabetes early years , younger ages, educational status, attending diabetes education, living in a rural area, male gender, lack of family support, having comorbidities, poor knowledge about diabetes, and lack of self-monitoring glucometer, were found to affect diabetes self-care practices [ 9 — 12 ].

Although it is known that diabetes self-care practice is vital in the management of the disease, the magnitude and factors associated with self-care practices are not well studied at the regional level.

Therefore, this study aimed to assess the level of self-care practices and associated factors among T2DM patients attending government hospitals in the Tigray region.

Administratively, the region is divided into 7 Zones, and those selected hospitals found in six of these seven zones. There are two specialized hospitals and 15 general hospitals in the region.

According to the available most recent population census of the region has an estimated population of more than 5 million. Majority By considering a design effect of 1. Patients diagnosed with gestational diabetes or mental disorders were excluded.

A multistage sampling method was used to reach the study hospitals. First, five zones out of the seven in the region were selected. Followed by selecting six 2 specialized and 4 general hospitals out of the 2 specialized and 12 general hospitals within these zones.

Finally, the study samples were recruited using the systematic random sampling method from the selected hospitals. The sample was allocated proportionally to each hospital i.

Study participants were selected using a systematic random sampling method of every 2—4 patients in all hospitals during their visit to the DM clinic. The tool contains information on socio-demographic, clinical characteristics, Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities SDSCA instrument [ 3 ], and the Diabetes Knowledge Test DKT [ 14 , 15 ].

SDSCA is a self-report measure with four components of diabetes self-management diet, exercise, blood sugar testing, and foot care. The respondents were asked to rate how many days during the past 7 days did they performed a specific self-care behavior. The scale ranges from 0 to 7, whereby higher scores correspond to higher diabetes management activities.

The overall mean score was calculated by summation of the mean score each for diet, exercise, foot care, and blood glucose testing divided by four [ 9 ]. For the knowledge test, the University of Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Center, diabetes knowledge test DKT was used [ 14 , 15 ].

The DKT is a item multiple-choice test designed to assess knowledge about diet, exercise, blood glucose levels, and testing, and self-care activities have been adopted and tested [ 13 ]. Each item has three or four multiple choices with only one correct answer.

The first 14 items are designed for all adults with type 2 diabetes, while items 15—23 apply only to those taking insulin [ 15 ]. Scores on the DKT were computed for each participant.

The score was determined by dividing the number of correct answers by the total number of questions 23 questions for patients taking insulin and 14 for those receiving oral hypoglycemic agents.

The data were collected by trained nurses using an interviewer-administered method. The tool takes 20—30 minutes to complete. Body mass index BMI Body mass index BMI was categorized as normal weight if BMI was Written signed consent for participation was obtained before data collection.

Participant autonomy was maintained by telling them that they can refuse or stop their participation at any time.

To maintain the confidentiality of the participants no personal identifiers were used. The data were cleaned, coded, entered into Epidata. Descriptive statistics including mean, median, standard deviations, and range values for continuous data, as well as percentage and frequency tables for categorical data were computed.

Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify any association between the dependent and independent variables.

Variables with a p-value less than 0. In multivariable logistic regression model fitness was tested using Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit. We checked multi-collinearity among selected independent variables via variance inflation factor VIF and none was found.

A p-value less than 0. The mean ± SD age of the respondents was 46 ± Three hundred and fifty one Five hundred and thirty seven Three hundred fifty-one

BMC Health Services Research volume 18Article diahetes Cite this article. Metrics Self-care practices for diabetes. Diabetes, a rising global diabftes problem, requires continuous Self-care practices for diabetes practice to prevent acute and chronic complications. However, studies show that few diabetes patients practice the recommended self-care in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with self-care practice among adult diabetes patients in public hospitals of West Shoa Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.

Author: Daizuru

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