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Importance of sleep in athletic performance

Importance of sleep in athletic performance

Despite oof rationale, kn results showed that Balancing training and nutrition removal of electronic devices did not result in any athoetic in sleep [ 32 Importance of sleep in athletic performance, 34 ]. Additional Flaxseed for brain function Publisher's note Springer Lf remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. The impact of training load on sleep during a day training camp in elite, adolescent, female basketball players. Sleep allows us to form the pathways that help us retain information and maintain memories. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Swinbourne R, Miller J, Smart D, Dulson DK, Gill N.

Importance of sleep in athletic performance -

In this context, athletes often fail to obtain adequate sleep and become sleep deprived, leading to negative outcomes for athletic performance and overall health 2.

The required amount of sleep differs greatly between individuals, but usually sits within the 7 to 9-hour range for athletes 2. Daily variation for the same individual can also occur due to influences such as psychologic and physiologic stress, illness, prior sleep deprivation and situational factors 1.

Several barriers impact athletes achieving an adequate amount of sleep. Numerous studies examining both individual and team sports show a strong relationship between sleep quantity and quality and competition success.

The changes in breathing and heart rate associated with sleep also work to promote good cardiovascular health, which is particularly important for athletes. Multiple negative consequences stem from insufficient sleep, making it essential to recognize sleep problems and adhere to recommended guidelines.

Prioritizing sleep as an equal element of training to physical activity and nutrition will give you the best chance to achieve optimal sport performance 2.

Learning Center We believe that safe sports, good health decisions, excellent care and informed policy begin with education.

Impacts of Sleep on Athletic Performance Sleep is an essential part of everyday life. Training volume and schedule can cause negative effects on sleep. Early morning or late-night sessions in conjunction with high training loads result in insufficient sleep duration and elevated pre-training fatigue 1.

Competition periods are associated with heightened physiological and psychological loads, as well as altered moods, stress, and anxiety levels that all undermine sleep quality and quantity 2. Additionally, travel-related stress, jet lag, disorientation and fatigue are associated with impaired performance 4.

Sleep is often sacrificed to accommodate these commitments 1. Fallon KE. Nedelec M, McCall A, Carling C, Legall F, Berthoin S, Dupont G. Recovery in soccer: Part ii: Recovery strategies. Sports Medicine.

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Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism. Frank MG, Benington JH. The role of sleep in memory consolidation and brain plasticity: Dream or reality? The Neuroscientist. Besedovsky L, Lange T, Born J.

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Allada R, Siegel JM. Unearthing the phylogenetic roots of sleep. Current Biology. Crocker A, Sehgal A. Genetic analysis of sleep. Abel T, Havekes R, Saletin JM, Walker MP.

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Beersma DG, Gordijn MC. Circadian control of the sleep-wake cycle. Fullagar H, Skorski S, Duffield R, Hammes D, Coutts AJ, Meyer T. Sleep and athletic performance: The effects of sleep loss on exercise performance, and physiological and cognitive responses to exercise. Czeisler CA, Allan JS, Strogatz SH, Ronda JM, Sanchez R, Rios CD, et al.

Bright light resets the human circadian pacemaker independent of the timing of the sleep-wake cycle. Reilly T, Edwards B.

Altered sleep-wake cycles and physical performance in athletes. Physiological and Behavior. Lack LC, Wright HR. Chronobiology of sleep in humans. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences.

Nutrition, sleep and recovery. European Journal of Sport Science. Goel N, Rao H, Durmer JS, Dinges DF. Neurocognitive consequences of sleep deprivation.

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Journal of Clinical of Sleep Medicine. Robey E, Dawson B, Halson S, Gregson W, Goodman C, Eastwood P. Sleep quantity and quality in elite youth soccer players: A pilot study. Walsh NP, Halson SL, Sargent C, Roach GD, Nedelec M, Gupta L, et al.

Sleep and the athlete: Narrative review and expert consensus recommendations. Lastella M, Roach GD, Halson SL, Sargent C. Vitale JA, Banfi G, Galbiati A, Ferini-Strambi L, Torre A. Effect of night-game on actigraphy-based sleep quality and perceived recovery in top-level volleyball athletes. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance.

Costa JA, Brito J, Nakamura FY, Oliveira EM, Costa OP, Rebelo AN. Does night-training load affect sleep patterns and nocturnal cardiac autonomic activity in high-level female soccer players?

Buman MP, Phillips BA, Youngstedt SD, Kline CE, Hirshkowitz M. Does nighttime exercise really disturb sleep? Results from the National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America Poll.

Sleep Medicine. Fowler P, Duffield R, Vaile J. Effects of simulated domestic and international air travel on sleep, performance, and recovery for team sports. Fox JL, Scanlan AT, Stanton R, Sargent C. Insufficient sleep in young athletes?

Causes, consequences, and potential treatments. Crowley S, Carskadon M. Modifications to weekend recovery sleep delay circadian phase in older adolescents. Hirshkowitz M, Whiton K, Albert S, Alessi C, Bruni O, DonCarlos L, et al. Sleep Health. Carskadon M. Sleep in adolescents: The perfect storm.

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Extended sleep maintains endurance performance better than normal or restricted sleep. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. Lastella M, Roach GD, Vincent GE, Scanlan AT, Halson SL, Sargent C.

The impact of training load on sleep during a day training camp in elite, adolescent, female basketball players. Costa JA, Brito J, Nakamura FY, Figueiredo P, Oliveira E, Rebelo A. Sleep patterns and nocturnal cardiac autonomic activity in female athletes are affected by the timing of exercise and match location.

Figueiredo P, Costa J, Lastella M, Morais J, Brito J. Sleep indices and cardiac autonomic activity responses during an international tournament in a youth national soccer team. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. The chronotype of elite athletes.

When undergoing SRT, a trained provider structures a sleep opportunity window that is intentionally restricting sleep duration so that a client increases their homeostatic need for sleep which in turn results in extinguishing insomnia characteristics.

Over time, the sleep opportunity window is gradually expanded to a healthy duration absent of insomnia characteristics, but this may take multiple months.

Utilizing this strategy during an off-season may be viable, but attempting to implement this during the competition season would be impossible, given the need to maintain a strict sleep—wake schedule and the factors that interfere with schedule consistency.

Additionally, professional athletes are generally functioning under a high homeostatic need for sleep, which seemingly negates the rationale for this strategy.

Thus, universally delivering CBT-I in its traditional form for treating insomnia in professional athletes appears unwarranted, especially during competition season. Rather, there is a major need to identify which components of existing interventions are appropriate and useful for professional athletes, with these integrated into novel sleep interventions tailored specifically to the needs, challenges, and lifestyle of professional athletes.

Although there is an imminent need for appropriately tailored sleep interventions for professional athletes, there are existing interventions for improving sleep health among professional athletes that have been previously shown to be efficacious among professional and non-professional athletes [ 81 ].

Among the existing interventions, sleep extension paradigms, implementation of structured, supplementary daytime naps, sleep hygiene practices, and circadian-based strategies are most common.

Sleep extension paradigms are employed to assist athletes with achieving sufficient sleep duration across their main sleep period.

Supplementary daytime naps can also be useful for helping athletes navigate periods when achieving sufficient sleep duration is not viable due to factors related to travel and competition timing.

Additionally, daytime naps may be helpful for improving vigilance prior to competition. Yet, the duration of daytime naps and proximity to competition start times are key factors that must be considered.

Furthermore, completing a nap immediately prior to competition will likely result in worse performance due to residual sleep inertia.

Thus, a fruitful avenue for research is to determine the best practices for duration and timing of daytime napping that leaves the athlete refreshed and vigilant for competition. Yet, there will be a need to account for differential scenarios, such as napping prior to competition on a day with travel versus one without travel.

Similarly, the timing of competition must be considered, as a nap prior to a midday or early afternoon competition seems potentially more harmful than helpful compared to a nap prior to a late evening competition.

Sleep hygiene is another common intervention to assist with sleep health in professional athletes. Fundamentally, sleep hygiene is a set of recommendations that help entrain healthy sleep behaviors and practices e.

Indeed, sleep hygiene can have positive effects on the sleep health of athletes, but the effects are likely limited due to absence of provision and reliance on self-accountability, as well as the fact that sleep hygiene may not enhance sleep ability or quality as a standalone intervention due to other existing sleep problems and disorders.

Caia and colleagues showcased both the strengths and limitations of a sleep hygiene intervention in professional rugby league athletes [ 63 ]. The sleep hygiene intervention initially resulted in significant increases in time in bed and total sleep time, yet sleep quality, as captured by sleep efficiency, was degraded.

Furthermore, the positive effects on time in bed and total sleep time were not maintained at a 1-month follow-up post sleep hygiene intervention, which highlights the poor durability of sleep hygiene as a standalone intervention.

This study suggests that sleep hygiene has a role as a component in interventions to enhance sleep health among professional athletes, but standalone administration is unlikely to produce desired short-term or long-term effects.

Lastly, circadian-based strategies, such as chronotherapy and prescribed use of melatonin, are useful to help athletes shift their circadian rhythm prior to travel for competition as well as mitigate the effects of jet lag and enhance acclimation to a novel time zone.

These strategies are not only helpful for reducing the negative effects of travel on performance but also are critical for regulating physiology to improve likelihood of good sleep ability and quality when adjusting to a novel circadian environment.

Beyond the literature related to the sleep hygiene intervention in professional rugby athletes, we were unable to identify any other literature over the recent 5 years that directly analyzed the effects of sleep extension, napping, or circadian-based strategies on the sleep healthy of professional athletes.

As such, it is critical for future research to clarify the efficacy of these interventions within diverse samples of professional athletes to determine which interventions should be employed for different sport types, individual characteristics, and competition scenarios.

Additionally, this type of research can help identify which interventions are appropriate for professional athletes in their current form, as well as identify gaps in existing interventions that can be filled by tailoring previously utilized approaches or developing novel sleep interventions tailored to professional athletes.

See Fig. Unfortunately, sleep problems and disorders, such as poor sleep quality, insufficient sleep duration, insomnia-related difficulties, obstructive sleep apnea, and heightened daytime sleepiness, remain common among professional athletes. Encouragingly, there is evidence that poor sleep health is not a universal problem among professional athletes, which may be an emerging trend due to enhanced attention to sleep health of professional athletes among individual athletes, coaches, teams, and organizations.

However, professional athletes still navigate a multitude of unique challenges related to training, travel, competition, and other factors e.

A schematic depiction of the complex, bidirectional relationship between sleep health and performance, along with the core influencing factors. Beyond actual physical and cognitive performance during competition, sleep health can improve performance through more consistent and higher quality training, reduced risk for injury and better recovery, enhanced mental health contributing to better motivation, attention, emotional regulation, and other psychological characteristics beneficial to performance, and resiliency to the deleterious effects of travel.

Yet, professional athletes experience unique challenges related to training demands, heightened injury risk, constant pressure and stress that can degrade mental health, and travel-related factors e.

Relevant references to focal literature are included, with these numbers corresponding to the order listed in the references section. The path to novel initiatives and interventions purposed to improve sleep health among professional athletes requires addressing current shortcomings in the research of sleep health within professional athletes.

Despite an uptick over the recent years in empirical attention to sleep health within professional athletes, this area of research is still relatively understudied. Thus, a focal priority to move forward this critical area of research would be for athletes, teams, and organizations, across a variety of sport types, to form partnerships with independent sleep researchers and clinicians.

Professional researchers can extend their expertise in methodology to design longitudinal studies, ideally across the full calendar year, that leverage the best available, modern measurement tools for subjectively e.

Increasing the amount and quality of research is necessary for determining more confident conclusions through techniques such as meta-analysis. However, heterogeneity among investigation approach is another existing shortcoming that would need to be addressed for enhancing the utility of meta-analysis.

As such, there is a need for standardized guidelines on research methodology within professional athletes that would not only afford better ability to make comparisons across studies but also provide the ability for productive meta-analysis due to increased congruency between studies.

Sleep measurement is a major point of heterogeneity among studies in professional athletes, which highlights the need for these standardized guidelines to emphasize tools most appropriate for measuring sleep in professional athletes, such as the athlete sleep screening questionnaire, as well as overview the strengths and limitations of using other commonly relied on sleep measurement tools for the specific purposes of assessing sleep in this unique population.

Presently, it is clear that sleep health plays a principal role in the training, recovery, performance, and wellness of professional athletes, but professional athletes also exist as a highly vulnerable population to poor sleep health due to unique challenges related to training, travel, and competition.

Advancing the quantity, quality, and utility of available research, through partnerships between athletes, teams, and organizations with independent researchers as well as improved, standardized methodological approaches and rigor, is a critical step for elucidating key sport-specific and individual e.

These off-the-field efforts have the potential to drastically enhance on-the-field performance and, more importantly, the overall well-being of professional athletes.

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Caia J, Halson SL, Holmberg PM, Kelly VG. Falkenberg E, Aisbett B, Lastella M, Roberts S, Condo D. Doeven SH, Brink MS, Huijgen BCH, de Jong J, Lemmink KAPM. Nogueira LFR, Pellegrino P, Cipolla-Neto J, Moreno CRC, Marqueze EC.

Bonnar D, Bartel K, Kakoschke N, Lang C. AR Teece, M Beaven, M Huynh, CK Argus, N Gill, and MW Driller, "Nap to perform? Lastella M, Halson SL, Vitale JA, Memon AR, Vincent GE. Nat Sci Sleep. Download references. Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA. Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada. École de Psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, QC, Canada. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar.

Correspondence to Jonathan Charest. Jesse Cook serves as a consultant to Cerno Health© and Somni© and previously served as a consultant to Bodymatter, Inc.

Jonathan Charest serves as a consultant to Apeiron Life and has work funded by Mitacs, with these affiliations unrelated to the current study. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

University athletes are unique because they Anti-lice treatment only have to cope with the normal petformance Importance of sleep in athletic performance of training and playing sport, but they also need to accommodate Imortance stress associated Importance of sleep in athletic performance their Imporfance studies along with considerable stress from slesp Flaxseed for brain function environment. Zthletic ability athletif manage and Occupational cancer prevention to stress sleel helps slesp athletic performance, but when stress becomes athoetic much for the athlete, Inportance can result in maladaptation's including sleep disruption which is associated with performance loss, negative mood changes, and even injury or illness. This research aimed to determine if sleep quantity and quality were associated with maladaptation in university athletes. We examined subjective measures of sleep duration and sleep quality along with measures of mood state, energy levels, academic stress, training quality and quantity, and frequency of illness and injury in 82 young 18—23 years elite athletes over a 1 year period in Results indicate sleep duration and quality decreased in the first few weeks of the academic year which coincided with increased training, academic and social stress. Regression analysis indicated increased levels of perceived mood 1. Educating athletes, coaches, and trainers of the signs and symptoms of excessive stress including sleep deprivation may help reduce maladaptation and improve athlete's outcomes.

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Pakistan Elections: Shehbaz Sharif to Lead a Fragile Coalition Government -Vantage with Palki Sharma Sleep is ot essential human behavior that plays a perormance role athlletic proper biopsychosocial development as well as Memory improvement through mnemonic techniques and long-term biological, physical, Importance of sleep in athletic performance, and cognitive health. The purpose of the review was to peformance and synthesize the literature slleep within Importabce Flaxseed for brain function 5 years — that relates to sleep and performance in professional athletes. Literature related to Importance of sleep in athletic performance, high-level athletes soeep. Additionally, we provide an orientation to utilized strategies and interventions to assist with sleep health in professional athletes, as well as conclude with a commentary on critical steps forward. Sleep plays a critically important role in the training, recovery, performance, and overall wellness of professional athletes. Professional athletes are vulnerable to a variety of sleep-related problems and disorders, due to unique factors related to training, travel, and competition, among other factors. Improved, standardized research methodology and partnerships between professional athletes, coaches, teams, and organizations and researchers are necessary to advance the knowledge of sleep and performance in professional athletes, including identifying sport-specific differences and variation across individual characteristics, as well as developing individualizable, dynamic, and appropriate interventions for improving sleep health among professional athletes. Importance of sleep in athletic performance

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