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Obesity prevention research

Obesity prevention research

By Obesity prevention research families to Benefits Data Trust, adults will receive application reesarch Obesity prevention research order to obtain Dextrose Fitness Fuel benefits, including for programs Obdsity the Reseafch Nutrition Assistance Program SNAP and the Special Supplemental Nutritional Program for Women, Infants, and Children WIC. Burton et al. Obesity is a common, serious, and costly chronic disease of adults and children. Research Priorities. Random Allocation of Schools to the Intervention or Control Group Within 5 Districts Strata eFigure 2. JAMA Pediatr.

Obesity prevention research -

Explore these obesity prevention-related recommendations, reports, and other resources from national and international government agencies, academic institutions, and nonprofit organizations.

Skip to content Obesity Prevention Source. Obesity Prevention Source Menu. Search for:. Abriendo Caminos is a multi-site, longitudinal, randomized control obesity primary prevention intervention designed to reduce excessive weight gain in Mexican and Puerto Rican children in a community setting.

Randomization into the intervention and control groups was conducted during initial data collection for each cycle in each cohort. Randomization process was determined by site, and participating families were randomized using a random number generator Research Randomizer, Lancaster, PA, , or by participants selecting a ball from a bag, whose color corresponded to a specific treatment arm.

Families were randomized in a ratio of per cycle of the program. Groups were not matched on child age or sex. The number of families and participants in each cohort varied depending on staffing and space capacity at each site and the number of eligible families available at each time.

On average, 12—20 families participated per cohort. The Abriendo Caminos intervention was available in Spanish and English; it was delivered by dedicated and trained staff.

Each site had a primary investigator, who recruited bilingual staff, including graduate and undergraduate pre-health, human nutrition, human development, community health, or kinesiology students, and -when possible- extension and volunteer personnel embedded in the local community.

The selected sites in Illinois Champaign, Urbana, and Rantoul , and Iowa Ottumwa and Perry , are suburban, while those in Texas, California, and Puerto Rico are urban.

At the Texas site Houston , Hispanic families were recruited from an urban Houston Metropolitan area targeting a low-income, predominantly Mexican neighborhood named East End. Due to the long relationship with the community, potential Hispanic families were recruited from social services agencies such as community centers and clinics.

In California, the site Fresno is a major city in the Central Valley. Project coordinators and research assistants contacted families in multiple ways, including passing out flyers at Hispanic grocery stores, flea markets, elementary schools, and churches.

At the Puerto Rico site, families were recruited from the west side of the island. This was due to the location of the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez UPRM.

The University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez Campus, is a public land-grant university. UPRM is the second-largest university campus of the University of Puerto Rico system.

In addition to its status as a land-grant university, it is also a member of the sea-grant and space-grant research. More information is described in detail at the clinical trial registration. Mexican and Puerto Rican descent families enrolled in this study at least one parent and one child aged 6—18 years per family.

There were no upper or lower weight restrictions for children to participate in the community program. This study adhered to the CONSORT statement reporting guidelines and was registered with www.

gov NCT Before baseline data collection, bilingual research assistants asked parents to read and sign the informed consent and target children were asked to sign an assent form, respectively, confirming that they understood the terms of participation. Families were informed that their participation in the study was voluntary, and they were permitted to withdraw at any point without explanation.

Due to the US political climate at the time of the study initiation, , we secured a "certificate of confidentiality" and removed participant names from the data.

A sample size of families intervention and control was pre-planned to provide adequate power to detect the intervention effects based on the original project A staggered initiation of sites was designed to implement regional adaptations of the project.

Thus, the first site was Illinois, and the second and third were California and Iowa. Finally, for the fourth and fifth sites, we encountered multiple natural disaster challenges, including weathering a major earthquake and three hurricanes Harvey, Maria, and Irma , delaying data collection in Texas and Puerto Rico.

Moreover, the COVID pandemic presented unprecedented and unpredictable challenges in recruiting, implementing, and evaluating a face-to-face intervention. In the end, two sites had to adapt workshops and recruitment to a virtual delivery Texas and Puerto Rico. Mostly mothers completed survey data and anthropometric assessments at pre-program at baseline T0 , after the 6-week intervention T1, post-program , and six-months post-intervention T2.

Demographic data collected at T0 from mothers included birth country, child's date of birth, and child's sex. Trained research assistants measured children's body height and weight at least twice using Seca Seca North America, Chino, CA stadiometers and scales. Body height was measured in a standing position with both feet touching the base of the board and the head in the Frankfort Plane.

Body weight was measured in light clothing. The average of the two measurements was recorded. If the difference between the two measurements was greater than 0. As described elsewhere, the Abriendo Caminos program is educational, with 6 weekly 2-hour workshops Abriendo Caminos is a community-based delivery program with cultural-tailoring.

Briefly, the applied behavior theory for community nutrition with the tenets of Social Cognitive Theory behavioral capacity, self-efficacy, and social support is integral to the curriculum to facilitate behavioral change. At the end of each session, parents completed an evaluation of the workshop and received a gift card for their attendance.

Control families completed the demographic questionnaires and had their anthropometric measurements taken at T0, T1, and T2. Control group families did not participate in the workshops, but they received educational materials at the end of the 6-month period.

Descriptive statistics means, standard deviations, median and interquartile range, and percentages were used to compare characteristics of children in the intervention vs. the control groups. Group differences across intervention arms were examined using chi-square tests for categorical covariates and t -tests or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests for continuous variables.

Figure 1. BMI z-scores changes during the study. At baseline, those in the control group had slightly higher BMI z-scores than those in the intervention group, but the difference was not statistically significant. After the first follow-up T1 , the intervention group experienced a reduction in BMI z-scores, relative to the baseline, but not the control group.

At the end of the second follow-up, the intervention group maintained their improved scores compared to the first wave assessment. Still, the control group continued to observe increases in the scores. However, differences between the intervention and control group were not statistically significant at 6 months.

The primary outcome for this report was the change in BMI z-scores. We used a repeated mixed-effects linear regression 29 , 30 to analyze longitudinally changes in BMI z-scores at 6-weeks post-intervention T1 , and 6-month post-intervention T2 compared to the baseline values.

Repeated mixed-effects regressions are appropriate for handling correlated data and an unequal number of observations across individuals, which is an advantage over generalized linear models.

Measures of BMI z-scores were treated as continuous. The full model included: age, sex, intervention group, time of measurement T1, T2 , interaction of group and time of measurement, and intervention site. Random effects for the intercept were included to allow individuals to vary in the initial level of BMI z-score at baseline T0.

Additionally, analyses were disaggregated by sex and age group 6—11, and 12 or older. Finally, since most mothers were from Mexico, we restricted the analyses to those participants.

We presented the regression coefficients, confidence intervals, and p -values. Finally, we conducted sensitivity tests. First, we examined whether dropping out of the sample affected the results.

To do so, a dichotomous variable was added to indicate those with complete data on all waves vs. those with missing data on at least one follow-up. Then, we included a dummy variable for incomplete vs. complete data in the mixed-effects. Lastly, we restricted data to those with complete data in all waves.

A total of participants had complete data at the baseline, with randomly assigned to the Abriendo Caminos intervention group and to the control group.

Groups were similar in the baseline with no significant group differences in demographic or anthropometric variables. Table 1 provides participant characteristics at baseline with stratification by intervention arm. Over half of the participating children were affected by obesity or overweight Mothers were, on average, The majority of mothers were born in Mexico There were no statistical differences in children or mothers' demographic characteristics between the intervention and control groups at baseline.

Table 1. Descriptive statistics at the baseline of Abriendo Caminos participants. Table 2 shows the mean of the BMI z-scores over the study period.

Mean BMI z-scores were 1. Mean BMI z-scores for the control group were 1. For the intervention group, at baseline mean BMI z-score was 1. Based on a simple T- test, there were no statistical differences between the control and intervention groups at each assessment time point Figure 1.

Table 2. However, at six-months after the program, changes in BMI z-scores for both the intervention and control groups were not statistically significantly different from baseline Table 4.

Table 3. Estimated parameters from repeated mixed-effects regressions on continuous BMI z-scores outcome measures. Table 4. Changes in BMI z-scores at post-program T1 and after 6-months T2 from baseline. In further analyses, we disaggregated the sample by age young and teens and sex. Results indicate that, for boys, there were no statistical differences between the control and intervention groups.

In analyses disaggregated by age, results indicated that the intervention benefited the younger children, but not older children. In additional analyses where we restricted the sample to those whose mothers were born in Mexico; the conclusions remain.

Supplementary Table S1c. Given the proportion of missing data at the follow-up, we explored the data non-response pattern. Results from mixed-effects regressions, which included a dummy variable for incomplete vs. complete data, indicated that those who dropped out of the study did not differ in their baseline BMI z-scores.

The remaining statistical inferences were unchanged. We further examined the data by analyzing only those with complete data, and the results remained unchanged.

Despite decades of evidence-based recommendations and interventions, systematic reviews, consensus statements, with stakeholder and community members' advocacy, the effectiveness of childhood obesity prevention programs continues to be a 1 , 12 , 16 , 20 , 21 , 24 , 25 , 31 — The problem of obesity is particularly salient among Hispanic children and adolescents, accentuated by the burden of structural and social determinants of health, which limit access to opportunities and services that promote long-term engagement in health promotion behaviors 12 , 35 — Two recent systematic reviews on family-centered interventions for the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity found only a few articles with full methods and outcomes reporting effectiveness by using culturally related tools designed for US Hispanics e.

Few family-based or community interventions have an RCT design, and the reported outcomes of interventions are inconsistent, ranging from a slight decrease, no change, or a larger drop in BMI particularly among those with higher BMI values at baseline 16 , Achieving BMI reduction in children and adolescents may be challenging due to their rapid physical growth in height and adiposity, particularly during early adolescence 14 , However, even smaller reductions of BMI-SDS have been associated with improved cardiometabolic health and body composition 11 , Research Priorities.

Resources for Researchers Explore databases and tools for obesity research. Cancer Trends Progress Report: Weight National data trends that examine obesity prevention and reducing the risk of certain types of cancer, and improving cancer outcomes. Catalogue of Surveillance Systems Access to over publicly available datasets relevant to childhood obesity research, including obesity-related health behaviors, outcomes, and determinants; and policies and environmental factors.

Measures Registry User guides to help researchers select measures for studies in obesity among youth, including an overview of measurement, principles of measurement selection, case studies, and resources.

Registry of Studies A searchable database of community-based studies assessing known factors impacting rates of childhood obesity, providing information on the study design, measures, content areas, and populations examined. More resources. Funding Interested in funding opportunities or planning to submit an application in obesity research?

NIH Funding Opportunities in Obesity. NIH Prevention-Related Study Sections. NIH-Funded Projects RePORT RCDC RePORTER ClinicalTrials.

Obesity Obesity prevention research a disease that can Obesity prevention research prevented or Dairy-free breakfast for Obesitty across the preventkon. Individuals can Immune-boosting weight loss Obesity prevention research and increase rsearch activity to reseaarch health outcomes and improve quality of life. Individuals who use these modification strategies Obesity prevention research improve health can further prevent researrch chronic researcj affiliated with obesity from occurring. The alternative prevejtion being proactive or reactive to obesity prevention or management would be the development of associated chronic illnesses, which can result in a shortened lifespan. Healthcare providers share a common vision of educating individuals regarding diet modification and incorporating exercise in the daily routine to prevent obesity, which is an important task for educators as well to make a difference in populations of all ages. Healthcare workers and educators who deliver information to populations in need, gain trust and cooperation by treating others using the guiding principles of dignity, honesty, and integrity which can produce mutual respect, build rapport, and create trusting relationships that can lead to compliance of the plan for obesity prevention or management. Background: Prefention individuals are Obesihy increased risk for obesity and Obesity prevention research chronic health reseach. This Obesitu evaluates the preventiion of a family-based, Obesity prevention research obesity primary prevention intervention Obesity prevention research a community setting. Methods: A multi-site, randomized controlled trial community program with assessments at pre T0post-program T1and 6-months post-program T2. Participating families were recruited from five sites. Only families of Mexican or Puerto Rican heritage with a least one child between 6 and 18 years were included in the study, without weight restrictions. Families were randomized to the intervention and control arms.

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