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Glycemic index versus glycemic load

Glycemic index versus glycemic load

When loaad binds Sugar cravings and willpower cell Glycemic index versus glycemic load, glucose Glycemic index versus glycemic load easily move from the bloodstream veraus the cell and be used as energy glyccemic power cellular activities and body functions. Liu S, Manson JE, Buring JE, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Ridker PM. Understanding GL can help you plan specific portions of carbs that are less likely to spike your blood sugar. Effects of a low glycemic load diet versus a low-fat diet in subjects with and without the metabolic syndrome. BarclayJennie C. Use limited data to select content. Glycemic index versus glycemic load

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GL and GI estimate the rise of blood glucose in the body after eating a specific food. Generally, foods with a low GL have a low GI, whereas foods with an intermediate or high GL can range from very low to very high GI.

GI is a significant factor in GL. The lower a food's GI, the slower blood sugar rises after eating that food. In general, foods that are higher in carbs and contain more processed ingredients have a higher GI.

On the other hand, foods high in fiber or fat have lower GIs. GL represents the quantity and quality of carbohydrates in the overall diet and their interactions in the body. This is why GL is widely regarded as a more reliable tool than the glycemic index alone. Glycemic load offers information about how foods affect blood sugar and insulin.

The lower a food's glycemic index or glycemic load, the less it affects blood sugar and insulin levels. Research shows that sticking to a low GL diet can play an important role in staving off type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

Here is a GL reference list with many common foods based on their GL reference range. Foods with a low GL of 10 or less include:. Foods with an intermediate GL of 11—19 include:. Foods with a high GL of 20 or more include:. Observational studies have yielded mixed results regarding the association of GI, GL, and adverse medical events.

Studies show that carbohydrates are not bad in and of themselves. Rather, diets that are too high or too low in carbohydrates can be problematic.

Eating carbohydrates in the form of whole foods, such as whole grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables, is better for your health than the carbohydrates contained in processed foods. Overall, research shows that eating a low glycemic load diet, especially one that is high in fiber and whole-grain foods, is considered beneficial for cardiovascular disease prevention and several other chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes.

One study, the PURE Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology study, looked at how GI and GL impact cardiovascular health in nearlypeople. The PURE study found that higher GI and GL are associated with a greater risk of adverse cardiovascular disease events in adults with established cardiovascular disease.

However, the study was limited by recall bias due to its observational study design. More follow-up studies are needed to verify these results. Both of these tools are valuable in blood sugar management and diet planning. GI is more commonly discussed than GL, but both are integral to diet planning, whether you have diabetes or not.

Eating carbohydrates in moderation and exercising impact your body's ability to produce insulin and absorb glucose so those lifestyle choices must also be factored in.

If you are trying to form a personalized diet plan, you may want to discuss the role of glycemic index and glycemic load in your food choices with a nutritionist or healthcare provider. Glycemic index does not account for the many factors that impact your blood sugar, such as the amount of carbohydrates in a specific food and how quickly they are absorbed in the body.

This is why glycemic load is widely regarded as a more reliable tool than the glycemic index alone. Chickpeas, green leafy vegetables celery, kale, and spinachcarrots, and parsnips are the vegetables with the lowest glycemic load.

The GI of pasta ranges from 40 to 60, which is the intermediate range. Sticking to moderate portion sizes is as important as GI if you don't want your blood sugar to skyrocket. Harvard Health. The lowdown on glycemic index and glycemic load. Atkinson FS, Brand-Miller JC, Foster-Powell K, Buyken AE, Goletzke J.

International tables of glycemic index and glycemic load values a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr. Livesey G, Taylor R, Livesey HF, et al. Dietary glycemic index and load and the risk of type 2 diabetes: assessment of causal relations. Jenkins DJA, Dehghan M, Mente A, et al. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and cardiovascular disease and mortality.

N Engl J Med. Reynolds A, Mann J, Cummings J, Winter N, Mete E, Te Morenga L. Carbohydrate quality and human health: a series of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. By Shamard Charles, MD, MPH Shamard Charles, MD, MPH is a public health physician and journalist.

He has held positions with major news networks like NBC reporting on health policy, public health initiatives, diversity in medicine, and new developments in health care research and medical treatments.

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Measure content performance. Understand audiences through statistics or combinations of data from different sources. Develop and improve services. Use limited data to select content. List of Partners vendors. Type 2 Diabetes.

Living With. By Shamard Charles, MD, MPH. Medically reviewed by Danielle Weiss, MD. Table of Contents View All. Table of Contents. What Is Glycemic Index? What Is Glycemic Load? How They Are Related. Glycemic Response and Diet. GL and Disease Prevention. Frequently Asked Questions.

What Is the Glycemic Index? Easy Low-Glycemic Index Dinner Ideas. Low Glycemic Index Diet Snack and Dessert Ideas. Lunch Ideas for a Low Glycemic Index Diet. Frequently Asked Questions Which is more accurate, glycemic index or glycemic load? What are the vegetables with the lowest glycemic load?

Where does pasta fall on the glycemic index? Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles.

: Glycemic index versus glycemic load

The lowdown on glycemic index and glycemic load

Am J Clin Nutr. The University of Sydney. About Glycemic Index. The International Organization for Standardization. Food products - Determination of the glycaemic index GI and recommendation for food classification.

Ludwig DS. The glycemic index: physiological mechanisms relating to obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Willett WC.

Eat, Drink, and be Healthy: The Harvard Medical School Guide to Healthy Eating. Dodd H, Williams S, Brown R, Venn B. Calculating meal glycemic index by using measured and published food values compared with directly measured meal glycemic index.

Silva FM, Kramer CK, Crispim D, Azevedo MJ. A high-glycemic index, low-fiber breakfast affects the postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, and ghrelin responses of patients with type 2 diabetes in a randomized clinical trial.

J Nutr. Ranawana V, Leow MK, Henry CJ. Mastication effects on the glycaemic index: impact on variability and practical implications.

Eur J Clin Nutr. Sun L, Ranawana DV, Tan WJ, Quek YC, Henry CJ. The impact of eating methods on eating rate and glycemic response in healthy adults. Physiol Behav. Venn BS, Williams SM, Mann JI. Comparison of postprandial glycaemia in Asians and Caucasians. Diabet Med. Wolever TM, Jenkins AL, Vuksan V, Campbell J.

The glycaemic index values of foods containing fructose are affected by metabolic differences between subjects. Goff LM, Cowland DE, Hooper L, Frost GS. Low glycaemic index diets and blood lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

Willett W, Manson J, Liu S. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of type 2 diabetes. Gross LS, Li L, Ford ES, Liu S. Increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and the epidemic of type 2 diabetes in the United States: an ecologic assessment. Bhupathiraju SN, Tobias DK, Malik VS, et al.

Glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of type 2 diabetes: results from 3 large US cohorts and an updated meta-analysis. Mosdol A, Witte DR, Frost G, Marmot MG, Brunner EJ. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load are associated with high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol at baseline but not with increased risk of diabetes in the Whitehall II study.

Sahyoun NR, Anderson AL, Tylavsky FA, et al. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and the risk of type 2 diabetes in older adults. Sakurai M, Nakamura K, Miura K, et al.

Dietary glycemic index and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle-aged Japanese men. Sluijs I, Beulens JW, van der Schouw YT, et al.

Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and digestible carbohydrate intake are not associated with risk of type 2 diabetes in eight European countries. van Woudenbergh GJ, Kuijsten A, Sijbrands EJ, Hofman A, Witteman JC, Feskens EJ.

Glycemic index and glycemic load and their association with C-reactive protein and incident type 2 diabetes. J Nutr Metab. Villegas R, Liu S, Gao YT, et al. Prospective study of dietary carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load, and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle-aged Chinese women.

Arch Intern Med. Greenwood DC, Threapleton DE, Evans CE, et al. Glycemic index, glycemic load, carbohydrates, and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Diabetes Care. Livesey G, Taylor R, Livesey H, Liu S.

Is there a dose-response relation of dietary glycemic load to risk of type 2 diabetes? Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Dyson PA, Kelly T, Deakin T, et al. Diabetes UK evidence-based nutrition guidelines for the prevention and management of diabetes.

Mann JI, De Leeuw I, Hermansen K, et al. Evidence-based nutritional approaches to the treatment and prevention of diabetes mellitus.

American Diabetes Association. Prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes. Ma XY, Liu JP, Song ZY. Glycemic load, glycemic index and risk of cardiovascular diseases: meta-analyses of prospective studies.

Dong JY, Zhang YH, Wang P, Qin LQ. Meta-analysis of dietary glycemic load and glycemic index in relation to risk of coronary heart disease. Am J Cardiol. Fan J, Song Y, Wang Y, Hui R, Zhang W. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and stroke mortality: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

PLoS One. Mirrahimi A, de Souza RJ, Chiavaroli L, et al. Associations of glycemic index and load with coronary heart disease events: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohorts.

J Am Heart Assoc. Turati F, Dilis V, Rossi M, et al. Glycemic load and coronary heart disease in a Mediterranean population: the EPIC Greek cohort study. Liu S, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, et al. A prospective study of dietary glycemic load, carbohydrate intake, and risk of coronary heart disease in US women.

Beulens JW, de Bruijne LM, Stolk RP, et al. High dietary glycemic load and glycemic index increase risk of cardiovascular disease among middle-aged women: a population-based follow-up study.

J Am Coll Cardiol. Cai X, Wang C, Wang S, et al. Carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, glycemic load, and stroke: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

Asia Pac J Public Health. Rossi M, Turati F, Lagiou P, Trichopoulos D, La Vecchia C, Trichopoulou A. Relation of dietary glycemic load with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke: a cohort study in Greece and a meta-analysis. Eur J Nutr. Buscemi S, Cosentino L, Rosafio G, et al.

Effects of hypocaloric diets with different glycemic indexes on endothelial function and glycemic variability in overweight and in obese adult patients at increased cardiovascular risk. Clin Nutr.

Bullo M, Casas R, Portillo MP, et al. Liu S, Manson JE, Buring JE, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Ridker PM. Relation between a diet with a high glycemic load and plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in middle-aged women.

Jones JL, Park Y, Lee J, Lerman RH, Fernandez ML. A Mediterranean-style, low-glycemic-load diet reduces the expression of 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase in mononuclear cells and plasma insulin in women with metabolic syndrome. Nutr Res. Turati F, Galeone C, Gandini S, et al.

High glycemic index and glycemic load are associated with moderately increased cancer risk. Mol Nutr Food Res. Aune D, Chan DS, Lau R, et al. Carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load, and colorectal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

Cancer Causes Control. Choi Y, Giovannucci E, Lee JE. Glycaemic index and glycaemic load in relation to risk of diabetes-related cancers: a meta-analysis.

Br J Nutr. Mulholland HG, Murray LJ, Cardwell CR, Cantwell MM. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of digestive tract neoplasms: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Mullie P, Koechlin A, Boniol M, Autier P, Boyle P. Relation between breast cancer and high glycemic index or glycemic load: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. Tsai CJ, Leitzmann MF, Willett WC, Giovannucci EL. Dietary carbohydrates and glycaemic load and the incidence of symptomatic gall stone disease in men. Glycemic load, glycemic index, and carbohydrate intake in relation to risk of cholecystectomy in women.

Wang Q, Xia W, Zhao Z, Zhang H. Effects comparison between low glycemic index diets and high glycemic index diets on HbA1c and fructosamine for patients with diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Prim Care Diabetes.

Evert AB, Boucher JL. New diabetes nutrition therapy recommendations: what you need to know. Diabetes Spectr. Evert AB, Boucher JL, Cypress M, et al.

Nutrition therapy recommendations for the management of adults with diabetes. Louie JC, Markovic TP, Perera N, et al. A randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of a low-glycemic index diet on pregnancy outcomes in gestational diabetes mellitus.

Louie JC, Markovic TP, Ross GP, Foote D, Brand-Miller JC. Effect of a low glycaemic index diet in gestational diabetes mellitus on post-natal outcomes after 3 months of birth: a pilot follow-up study.

Matern Child Nutr. Markovic TP, Muirhead R, Overs S, et al. Randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of a low-glycemic index diet on pregnancy outcomes in women at high risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: The GI Baby 3 Study. Flegal KM, Kit BK, Orpana H, Graubard BI.

Association of all-cause mortality with overweight and obesity using standard body mass index categories: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Kopelman P.

Health risks associated with overweight and obesity. Obes Rev. Hu T, Mills KT, Yao L, et al. Effects of low-carbohydrate diets versus low-fat diets on metabolic risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.

Am J Epidemiol. Shyam S, Arshad F, Abdul Ghani R, Wahab NA. Low glycaemic index diets improve glucose tolerance and body weight in women with previous history of gestational diabetes: a six months randomized trial.

Ebbeling CB, Leidig MM, Feldman HA, Lovesky MM, Ludwig DS. Effects of a low-glycemic load vs low-fat diet in obese young adults: a randomized trial. Klemsdal TO, Holme I, Nerland H, Pedersen TR, Tonstad S. Effects of a low glycemic load diet versus a low-fat diet in subjects with and without the metabolic syndrome.

Juanola-Falgarona M, Salas-Salvado J, Ibarrola-Jurado N, et al. Effect of the glycemic index of the diet on weight loss, modulation of satiety, inflammation, and other metabolic risk factors: a randomized controlled trial.

Schwingshackl L, Hoffmann G. Dietary glycemic index and the regulation of body weight. Lennerz BS, Alsop DC, Holsen LM, et al. Effects of dietary glycemic index on brain regions related to reward and craving in men.

Aller EE, Larsen TM, Claus H, et al. Weight loss maintenance in overweight subjects on ad libitum diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index: the DIOGENES trial month results. Int J Obes Lond.

The GI is essentially a numbered ranking of the impact on blood sugar of carbohydrate-containing foods when compared to pure glucose sugar.

The glycemic index scale is ranked from low to high impact on blood sugar from 0 to Pure glucose is ranked at on the GI as it has the strongest impact on blood glucose aka blood sugar levels. Knowing the GI of a food can help you make an educated decision on which types of carb-containing foods would be better choices to help control your blood sugar levels.

In general, following a low glycemic index diet can definitely help you better control your blood sugar levels. High glycemic foods are the carbohydrate-containing foods that digest the quickest, such as refined carbs and sugary candy.

Foods that are packed with fiber, fat, and protein tend to digest more slowly, which means they rank lower on the GI. Another important thing to note is that the glycemic index of a specific food can actually change. A good example of this is that an under-ripe banana has a GI of 42, while a ripe banana scores at Figuring out the glycemic index of the foods you want to eat can be done most easily by searching an online database.

Glycemic load GL is similar to glycemic index in that it ranks foods based on their ability to raise blood sugar levels. The important difference between GL and GI is that GL actually takes into account the portion of food consumed, making GL a more accurate representation of blood sugar response.

Knowing the GL of a food can help you make better decisions to maintain balanced blood sugar levels. Similarly to GI, the GL score increases as the impact on blood sugar increases.

Understanding GL can help you plan specific portions of carbs that are less likely to spike your blood sugar. This tool can also come into use when you are trying out new foods to estimate the impact it will have on your blood glucose.

Luckily, calculating the glycemic load of a food is pretty simple. Take the grams of carbohydrates in the portion of food you consume and multiply that by the glycemic index of the food, then divide by Remember that a ripe banana has a GI of This GL score ranks a medium ripe banana as a medium glycemic load food and thus has a moderate impact on blood sugar levels.

This equation for GL shows us something extremely important. You can eat a little bit of a high GI food and a lot of a low GI food and end up with the same glycemic load.

This fact perfectly exemplifies why using GI is not the full story when it comes to blood sugar impact. You can use the same online database mentioned above to research foods for their corresponding GL. Glycemic load is an overall better measure because it takes into account more context than glycemic index does.

By definition, the glycemic load takes into account both the glycemic index and portion size of a specific food. The serving size of food consumed absolutely matters when it comes to blood sugar impact. In general, the bigger the serving of a high glycemic food means more sugar consumed, which means higher likelihood of blood sugar spikes.

While both GI and GL are useful measures for comparing foods based on their ability to impact blood sugar levels, there are definitely downsides that make these measures imperfect.

The biggest downside of the glycemic index is that it is based on eating a single food and leaves out the context of portion size and impact of food pairings. While it is definitely common to eat some foods by themselves, most meals do not consist of a single food. Although glycemic load is a better estimation of blood sugar impact because it takes portion sizes into account, there are some other factors that can impact blood sugar that this measure ignores.

Neither GI or GL takes into account how food pairings can impact blood sugar response.

Carbohydrates and the glycaemic index Because the incex load of a food Glycemic index versus glycemic load at multiple components, the same Glycemic index versus glycemic load glyycemic be high on the Muscle building supplements index but Glycemif an overall low indexx load. Recall a time you ate a carb-heavy bersus, like pasta with sauce, and how you felt afterward. Copyright © Women's Health Network. For example, intermediate-to-high-GI foods like parsnip, watermelon, banana, and pineapple, have low-to-intermediate GLs see Table 1. Although glycemic load is a better estimation of blood sugar impact because it takes portion sizes into account, there are some other factors that can impact blood sugar that this measure ignores. The glycemic index and glycemic load can help you combine the four food groups in a healthy way. By choosing the lower-GI options within a food category breads, breakfast cereals, etc.
Glycemic Index: What It Is and How to Use It

Your body creates blood sugar from the food you eat. Learn about this process and what affects your blood sugar. The low glycemic diet may aid weight loss and reduce blood sugar levels, but it has drawbacks too.

Here's everything you need to know. Can you eat bananas if you have diabetes? Bananas do contain carbs that can raise blood sugar, but they also have fiber and beneficial nutrients.

Learn more about whether coconut sugar is OK to add to your diet if you have diabetes. What are the health benefits of cherries, and why might they have a role in healthy glucose regulation?

While they're not typically able to prescribe, nutritionists can still benefits your overall health. Let's look at benefits, limitations, and more.

A Quiz for Teens Are You a Workaholic? How Well Do You Sleep? Health Conditions Discover Plan Connect. Nutrition Evidence Based Glycemic Index: What It Is and How to Use It.

Medically reviewed by Jillian Kubala, MS, RD , Nutrition — By Rachael Ajmera, MS, RD — Updated on October 27, What is the glycemic index? Low glycemic diet. Glycemic index of foods. Effects of cooking and ripening. The bottom line.

How we reviewed this article: History. Oct 27, Written By Rachael Ajmera, MS, RD. Mar 3, Medically Reviewed By Jillian Kubala, MS, RD.

Glycemic load takes both of these factors into account and is calculated by multiplying the GI of the food by the amount of carbohydrate per serve and then dividing by While foods with a high carbohydrate content and those with higher GI values will generally have the highest GL, this also means that small amounts of a high GI food may have only modest effects on blood glucose levels while large amounts of a low GI food can still raise blood glucose and insulin levels significantly.

What this means in practice, is that there is no need to totally avoid foods that have a high GI but are low in carbohydrate and nutrient-dense — a good example of this would be watermelon. If you are choosing lower GI foods and being mindful of portion sizes, then you are already taking GL into account.

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Dev by Digitaliz Designed by Echo Interactive. Low glycemic: barley black beans broccoli cashews cherries chickpeas grapefruit green leafy vegetables kidney beans lentils milk peanuts peanut butter pears plums soybeans strawberries tomatoes tomato soup wild rice plain yogurt. Low to moderate glycemic: All-Bran apples brown rice carrots garbanzo beans grapes honey ice cream kidney beans navy beans oranges peas peaches pears pinto beans potato chips.

The Lowdown on Glycemic Load: How a Free Tool Can Improve Blood Sugar Management Turati F, Dilis V, Rossi M, et al. These are examples of nutrition content claims and general level health claims, allowed by Food Standards Australia New Zealand under Standard 1. Which migraine medications are most helpful? Sticking to whole, unprocessed foods is another way to minimize a glycemic response. This might contribute to the loss of the insulin-secreting function of pancreatic β-cells and lead to irreversible type 2 diabetes mellitus Barclay , Jennie C.
Glycemic Load vs Index: Which is Better for Managing Diabetes?

However the overall effect that a food has on blood glucose levels is dependent on both the nature GI of the carbohydrate it contains and the amount you eat i.

the grams of carbs. Glycemic load takes both of these factors into account and is calculated by multiplying the GI of the food by the amount of carbohydrate per serve and then dividing by While foods with a high carbohydrate content and those with higher GI values will generally have the highest GL, this also means that small amounts of a high GI food may have only modest effects on blood glucose levels while large amounts of a low GI food can still raise blood glucose and insulin levels significantly.

What this means in practice, is that there is no need to totally avoid foods that have a high GI but are low in carbohydrate and nutrient-dense — a good example of this would be watermelon. If you are choosing lower GI foods and being mindful of portion sizes, then you are already taking GL into account.

FAQ: What is the difference between glycemic index and glycemic load? Yet, further analysis suggested significant reductions in serum lipids only with the consumption of low-GI diets with high fiber content.

In a three-month, randomized controlled study, an increase in the values of flow-mediated dilation FMD of the brachial artery, a surrogate marker of vascular health, was observed following the consumption of a low- versus high-GI hypocaloric diet in obese subjects High dietary GLs have been associated with increased concentrations of markers of systemic inflammation , such as C-reactive protein CRP , interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α TNF-α 40, In a small week dietary intervention study, the consumption of a Mediterranean-style, low-GL diet without caloric restriction significantly reduced waist circumference, insulin resistance , systolic blood pressure , as well as plasma fasting insulin , triglycerides , LDL-cholesterol, and TNF-α in women with metabolic syndrome.

A reduction in the expression of the gene coding for 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl HMG -CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis , in blood cells further confirmed an effect for the low-GI diet on cholesterol homeostasis Evidence that high-GI or -GL diets are related to cancer is inconsistent.

A recent meta-analysis of 32 case-control studies and 20 prospective cohort studies found modest and nonsignificant increased risks of hormone -related cancers breast, prostate , ovarian, and endometrial cancers and digestive tract cancers esophageal , gastric , pancreas , and liver cancers with high versus low dietary GI and GL A significant positive association was found only between a high dietary GI and colorectal cancer Yet, earlier meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies failed to find a link between high-GI or -GL diets and colorectal cancer Another recent meta-analysis of prospective studies suggested a borderline increase in breast cancer risk with high dietary GI and GL.

Adjustment for confounding factors across studies found no modification of menopausal status or BMI on the association Further investigations are needed to verify whether GI and GL are associated with various cancers. Whether low-GI foods could improve overall blood glucose control in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus has been investigated in a number of intervention studies.

A meta-analysis of 19 randomized controlled trials that included diabetic patients with type 1 diabetes and with type 2 diabetes found that consumption of low-GI foods improved short-term and long-term control of blood glucose concentrations, reflected by significant decreases in fructosamine and glycated hemoglobin HbA1c levels However, these results need to be cautiously interpreted because of significant heterogeneity among the included studies.

The American Diabetes Association has rated poorly the current evidence supporting the substitution of low-GL foods for high-GL foods to improve glycemic control in adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes 51, A randomized controlled study in 92 pregnant women weeks diagnosed with gestational diabetes found no significant effects of a low-GI diet on maternal metabolic profile e.

The low-GI diet consumed during the pregnancy also failed to improve maternal glucose tolerance , insulin sensitivity , and other cardiovascular risk factors, or maternal and infant anthropometric data in a three-month postpartum follow-up study of 55 of the mother-infant pairs At present, there is no evidence that a low-GI diet provides benefits beyond those of a healthy, moderate-GI diet in women at high risk or affected by gestational diabetes.

Obesity is often associated with metabolic disorders, such as hyperglycemia , insulin resistance , dyslipidemia , and hypertension , which place individuals at increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus , cardiovascular disease , and early death 56, Lowering the GI of conventional energy-restricted, low-fat diets was proven to be more effective to reduce postpartum body weight and waist and hip circumferences and prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus in women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus Yet, the consumption of a low-GL diet increased HDL - cholesterol and decreased triglyceride concentrations significantly more than the low-fat diet, but LDL -cholesterol concentration was significantly more reduced with the low-fat than low-GI diet Weight loss with each diet was equivalent ~4 kg.

Both interventions similarly reduced triglycerides, C-reactive protein CRP , and fasting insulin , and increased HDL-cholesterol. Yet, the reduction in waist and hip circumferences was greater with the low-fat diet, while blood pressure was significantly more reduced with the low-GL diet Additionally, the low-GI diet improved fasting insulin concentration, β-cell function, and insulin resistance better than the low-fat diet.

None of the diets modulated hunger or satiety or affected biomarkers of endothelial function or inflammation. Finally, no significant differences were observed in low- compared to high-GL diets regarding weight loss and insulin metabolism It has been suggested that the consumption of low-GI foods delayed the return of hunger, decreased subsequent food intake, and increased satiety when compared to high-GI foods The effect of isocaloric low- and high-GI test meals on the activity of brain regions controlling appetite and eating behavior was evaluated in a small randomized , blinded, cross-over study in 12 overweight or obese men During the postprandial period, blood glucose and insulin rose higher after the high-GI meal than after the low-GI meal.

In addition, in response to the excess insulin secretion, blood glucose dropped below fasting concentrations three to five hours after high-GI meal consumption. Cerebral blood flow was significantly higher four hours after ingestion of the high-GI meal compared to a low-GI meal in a specific region of the striatum right nucleus accumbens associated with food intake reward and craving.

If the data suggested that consuming low- rather than high-GI foods may help restrain overeating and protect against weight gain, this has not yet been confirmed in long-term randomized controlled trials.

However, the dietary interventions only achieved a modest difference in GI ~5 units between high- and low-GI diets such that the effect of GI in weight maintenance remained unknown. Table 1 includes GI and GL values of selected foods relative to pure glucose Originally written in by: Jane Higdon, Ph.

Linus Pauling Institute Oregon State University. Updated in December by: Jane Higdon, Ph. Updated in February by: Victoria J. Drake, Ph. Updated in March by: Barbara Delage, Ph. Reviewed in March by: Simin Liu, M.

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Alan W. Glycemic index versus glycemic loadJennie C. Brand-MillerThomas M. Wolever; Nidex Index, Glycemic Load, and Glycemic Response Are Not the Same. Diabetes Care 1 July ; 28 7 : — The paper by Hodge et al.

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