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Team sports nutrition

Team sports nutrition

Garth and Burke recently reviewed fluid intake practices of athletes participating in various sporting Energy boosters for better hormonal balance. Implementation of Tema systems spotts a performance kitchen can capture the nutition Energy boosters for better hormonal balance players around nutritioj nutrition Energy boosters for better hormonal balance, while Macro and micronutrient timing for sports performance team culture. It takes minutes of high-intensity activity to become almost completely depleted of your glycogen stores. A sweat loss of more than 2 percent of your pre-activity, normally hydrated body weight has been shown to negatively affect your athletic performance, and more so in a hot and humid environment. Team sports performance is very complex, as a player needs to present different physiological and non-physiological skills to perform at its best. Benefits of this strategy appear to relate to effects on the brain and central nervous system.

Team sports nutrition -

You may need more protein if you exercise regularly and intensely or for longer sessions, or if you are trying to build muscle mass. Connect with a dietitian to find out how much protein is right for you. You can get more protein by eating a few extra servings of protein foods throughout the day.

Divide your protein into 3 to 4 meals and snacks throughout the day and try to include a variety of protein sources. Sources of protein include beans, legumes, tofu, tempeh, edamame, nuts and seeds and their butters, eggs, meat, chicken, fish, dairy products like milk, cheese and yogurt, and fortified plant-based beverages.

About 1 to 4 hours before playing sports, eat a meal that is rich in carbohydrate, low in fat and fairly moderate or low in protein and fibre for quick digestion and to prevent gastrointestinal discomforts while playing or training.

Here are some examples:. Your portion size will depend on how intense or long your training session will be and your body weight. Choose smaller meals that are easier to digest closer to the time you will be exercising.

During sports, training or exercise that last longer than 1 hour, your body needs easy-to-digest foods or fluids. Your best approach is to drink your carbohydrate in a sports drink or a gel, but for longer exercise sessions of 2 hours or more, additional solid carbohydrates may be needed like fruit, crackers, a cereal bar, yogurt or a smoothie.

Connect with a dietitian to find out how many grams of carbohydrate you should aim for while exercising. The amount you need depends on the type of activity, your body size and the duration of your activity.

After training or playing sports, your body is ready to store energy again, repair muscles and re-hydrate. This is why it is important to eat a carbohydrate-rich meal or snack after training or exercising intensely for more than an hour.

Here are some examples of carbohydrate-rich meals and snacks:. Your portion size will depend on how intense or long your training session was, and your body weight. If you plan on training or exercising twice in one day or on back-to-back days, try to eat this carbohydrate-rich meal or snack within 30 minutes of finishing your session.

There are many dietitians that specialize in sports nutrition. They can work with you to set personalized targets for carbohydrate, fat and protein intake before, during and after training or playing your sport.

They will consider various factors such as, the intensity and duration of your exercise, your training goals, your culture and preferences and medical history when making recommendations.

A dietitian will also give you advice on hydration and if supplements are needed. Connect with a dietitian today!

Eating a balanced amount of carbohydrate, fat and protein is important to exercise and play sports at your best. Planning your meals and snacks before, during and after training or exercising will help you perform at your best.

Connect with a dietitian for personalized advice. Sports nutrition: Facts on hydration Sports nutrition: Facts on sports drinks Sports nutrition: Facts on vitamins and minerals Sports nutrition: Facts on sports supplements This article was written and reviewed by dietitians from Dietitians of Canada.

The advice in this article is intended as general information and should not replace advice given by your dietitian or healthcare provider. Dietitians look beyond fads to deliver reliable, life-changing advice. Want to unlock the potential of food? Connect with a dietitian. Home Articles Physical Activity Sports Nutrition: How Much Carbohydrate, Fat and Protein Do I Need?

How much carbohydrate, fat and protein do I need? Follow these overall tips to make sure you are getting the carbohydrate, fat and protein you need: For most athletes, high fat diets are not recommended so that you can get more carbohydrate for fuel and protein for muscle growth and repair.

Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs of daily training. Acute issues, both for training and in games, include strategies that allow the player to be well fuelled and hydrated over the duration of exercise.

Each player should develop a plan of consuming fluid and carbohydrate according to the needs of their activity patterns, within the breaks that are provided in their sport. In seasonal fixtures, competition varies from a weekly game in some codes to two to three games over a weekend road trip in others, with a tournament fixture usually involving one to three days between matches.

Some sports supplements may be of value to the team sport athlete. Sports drinks, carbohydrate gels and liquid meal supplements may be valuable in allowing nutritional goals to be met, while caffeine, creatine and buffering agents may directly enhance competition performance. This creates a diversity of physiological challenges and nutritional needs for team sport athletes.

In this chapter we overview four key areas in which nutrition can optimize performance in team sports: achievement of ideal body composition, the philosophy of nutritional support for training, strategies for meeting fluid and fuel needs during competition, and dietary supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids with benefits to team sport athletes.

basketball, football, hockey, rugby, volleyball can be described as moderate-to-long duration exercise including repeated bouts of high-intensity activity interspersed with periods of low-to-moderate active recovery or passive rest.

From a physiological perspective, team sports are characterized by the moderate-to-long distances covered by the players during match play e. in excess of activity changes per football match, including walking, jogging, cruising, sprinting, backing, jumping, tackling and heading [Hawley et al.

This activity pattern determines to a great extent the physiological requirements of team sports. Various factors may be involved in the cause of fatigue or sub-optimal performance in this context, with those related to nutrition being summarized in Table 1. Table 1: Factors related to nutrition that could produce fatigue or sub-optimal performance in team sports.

Failure to drink enough fluid to adequately replace sweat losses during a game. May be exacerbated if player begins match in fluid deficit.

Repeated matches e. tournaments may increase risk of compounding dehydration from one match to the next. midfield players in soccer, Australian Rules football. tournament may increase risk of poor refuelling from one match to the next.

Hypoglycaemia and depletion of central nervous system fuels brain glycogen. Reduction in blood glucose concentrations due to poor carbohydrate availability. May occur in players with high-carbohydrate requirements see above who fail to consume carbohydrate during the match.

Prolonged or repeated intervals of high-intensity activities. Inadequate recovery of phosphocreatine system of power production. GI disturbances, including vomiting and diarrhoea may directly reduce performance, as well as interfere with nutritional strategies aimed at managing fluid and fuel status.

Inadequate replacement of sodium lost in sweat. There is anecdotal evidence that salt depletion may increase the risk of a specific type of whole-body muscle cramp. Salty sweaters — individuals with high sweat rates and high sweat sodium concentrations who may acutely or chronically deplete exchangeable sodium pools.

Water intoxication Hyponatraemia low blood sodium. Excessive intake of fluids can lead to hyponatraemia ranging from mild often asymptomatic to severe can be fatal. Players with low sweat losses e. low activity or game time who overzealously consume fluid before and during a match.

Team sport players in positions that cover significant distances within a game and who are required to be fast and agile are generally aided by a lighter and lean physique. Typically, the body fat levels of team sport players do not reach the low levels typical of endurance athletes such as runners, cyclists and triathletes.

However, recent observations among professional team sports have noted a reduction in body fat levels across players in general Duthie et al. The requirement to wear lycra bodysuit uniforms in some team competitions has also contributed to an increased interest in loss of body fat among team players, although in this case it may be driven by aesthetic interests as much as by performance goals.

Table 2 summarizes the risk factors and strategies to manage unwanted gain of body fat among players in team sports. Recent research using tracer techniques has focused on the best feeding strategies following a bout of resistance exercise.

Various investigations have found that the maximal protein synthetic response is produced when resistance exercise is followed by the immediate intake of rapidly digested, highquality protein Tang et al. Despite the belief that large amounts of protein are needed for gains from resistance exercise, a dose—response study has found that the maximal synthetic response to a training bout was achieved with the intake of 20 to 25 g of high-quality protein following exercise Moore et al.

Over a hour recovery window, regular feeding i. every 3 hours of a moderate quantity [20 g] of rapidly digested whey protein will continue to promote high rates of muscle protein synthesis following resistance training Areta et al. As a general rule, including ˜0.

Furthermore, a well-scheduled intake of high-quality protein foods is likely to restrict the loss of muscle mass and strength during recovery from injury Wall et al.

Table 2: Risk factors and strategies to manage unwanted gain of body fat among players in team sports adapted from Burke, Strategies to address risk factor. Substantial reduction in activity levels during the off-season or injury. Poor nutrition knowledge and practical skills leading to poor food choices, convenient low-quality ready-prepared meals and reliance on takeaway foods.

supermarket tours, cooking classes to teach domestic skills and knowledge of sound choices in restaurants and takeaway outlets.

Chaotic meal patterns and displaced meals leading to poor awareness of actual food intake in a day. Residential situation e. college, foster family exposing athlete to inappropriate food choices and food volume. Constant travel, leading to disturbance of home routine; game schedule of frequent matches where emphasis is on fuelling and recovery.

Regular excessive intake of alcohol, often in conjunction with inappropriate eating. There are few studies of the fuel demands of team sport players during training or competition, with the available evidence being focused on the match play of soccer players.

Significant muscle glycogen depletion has been shown to occur over the course of a football match Ekblom, ; Saltin, ; Krustrup et al.

The current guidelines for carbohydrate intakes amended to suit a range of needs for team players are summarized in Table 3. As such, team sport athletes should be appropriately educated to manipulate their daily fuel intake to match the demands of training and competition.

Higher intakes may be required for younger team players to accommodate for growth and development, for leaner players with high daily energy requirements and for athletes striving to gain lean muscle mass to maintain a positive energy balance.

The lower-range carbohydrate intake recommendations are likely suitable for team players with high body fat levels given recommendations are expressed relative to body mass , for athletes returning from injury or on a break where training loads are reduced, or for players striving to reduce body fat levels during a general conditioning phase of training.

The high-carbohydrate diet did not increase the ability of players to shoot or dribble. Several explanations are possible: muscle glycogen depletion may not impair the ability of the player to execute game skills; alternative fatigue mechanisms such as dehydration or increased lactate production may be causative factors in the reduction in skill performance; or the treadmill protocol employed failed to induce a degree of glycogen depletion or fatigue large enough to cause a significant fall in skill performance Abt et al.

Distance skated, number of shifts skated, amount of time skated within shifts, and skating speed were all increased in the carbohydrate-loaded players compared with the mixed diet group, with the differences being most marked in the third period Akermark et al.

There are few studies of actual glycogen restoration following real or simulated competition in team sport; these are limited to soccer and show divergent results with both success Zehnder et al.

Potential reasons for failure to refuel effectively after competition include interference with glycogen storage due to the presence of muscle damage arising from eccentric activities Zehnder et al. Current sports nutrition guidelines for everyday eating recommend that athletes consume adequate carbohydrate to meet the fuel requirements of their training programme, thus allowing training sessions to be undertaken with high-carbohydrate availability for review, see Burke, There are a number of potential ways to reduce carbohydrate availability for training, including doing two training sessions in close succession without opportunity for refuelling Hansen et al.

As reviewed by Burke , it should be pointed out that these strategies do not involve a low carbohydrate intake per se, or follow the currently topical low-carbohydrate high-fat diet. Furthermore, they do not advocate low carbohydrate availability for all training sessions; indeed, studies report a reduction in selfchosen training intensity with " train low " sessions, which may account for a failure to achieve an overall improvement in performance Yeo et al.

Morton and colleagues Morton et al. Further work, including a more sophisticated approach to periodizing carbohydrate availability around different training sessions, is needed. These include inadequate fuel and fluid status; factors that can be addressed by the intake of appropriate drinks and sports products during a match.

Given the intermittent nature of team sports, they often offer frequent opportunities to ingest fluid and energy during breaks between periods, time-outs, substitutions or breaks in play see Burke, Drinking opportunities for selected team sports are summarized in Table 4.

Fluids must be consumed at sidelines; players must not leave field. Third-time breaks, time-outs, substitutions, pauses in play. Half-time break, substitutions, pauses in play. Trainers may run onto field with fluid bottles during pauses in play. Half-time break, pauses in play drink must be taken at sideline.

First to 3 sets, limited substitutions, time-outs. Sweat rates for team sport players are underpinned by the intermittent high-intensity work patterns, which are variable and unpredictable between and within team sports. Even from match to match, the same player can experience different workloads and sweat losses due to different game demands and overall playing time.

Fluid losses are also affected by variable climate and environmental conditions in which team sports are played e. outdoor vs. indoor; on sunny beach vs. on ice and in some sports the requirement to wear protective clothing, including body pads and helmets.

Garth and Burke recently reviewed fluid intake practices of athletes participating in various sporting events. They noted that most of the available literature involves observations from football soccer games, and there is little information on practices on other team sports, such as rugby league, rugby union, cricket, basketball and beach volleyball for review, see Garth and Burke, Studies that have included a test of pre-game hydration status in conjunction with fluid balance testing found that a subset of players reported on match day with urine samples consistent with dehydration.

Overall, mean BM changes over a match ranged from ˜1 to 1. One study reported that the total volume of fluid consumed by players was not different when they were provided with sports drink and water compared with water alone.

In addition, mean heart rate, perceived exertion, serum aldosterone, osmolality, sodium and cortisol responses during the test were higher when no fluid was ingested. Nevertheless, Edwards and Noakes suggest that dehydration is only an outcome of complex physiological control operating a pacing plan and no single metabolic factor is causal of fatigue in elite soccer.

The subjects were able to continue running longer when fed the carbohydrate-electrolyte solution. Ali et al. The carbohydrate-electrolyte solution enabled subjects with compromised glycogen stores to better maintain skill and sprint performance than when ingesting fluid alone.

Linseman et al. Skating speed and puck handling performance during the game, as well as post-game skating speed were improved with ingestion of the carbohydrate-electroltye solution. Their results showed that perceived activation was lower without carbohydrate ingestion during the last 30 min of exercise, and this was accompanied by lowered plasma glucose concentrations.

In the carbohydrate trial, RPE was maintained in the last 30 minutes of exercise but carried on increasing in the PLA trial. These authors concluded that carbohydrate ingestion during prolonged high-intensity exercise elicits an enhanced perceived activation profile that may impact upon task persistence and performance.

On a third trial, the same volume of carbohydrate-electrolyte was consumed in smaller volumes at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 minutes. This manipulation of the timing and volume of ingestion elicited similar metabolic responses without affecting exercise performance. However, consuming fluid in small volumes reduced the sensation of gut fullness Clarke et al.

Indeed, gastric emptying of liquids is slowed during brief intermittent high-intensity exercise compared with rest or steady-state moderate exercise Leiper et al.

These products are summarized in Table 5. Among the proposed nutritional ergogenic supplements, creatine Cr is the one that has been investigated the most in relation with team sports, given that its purported ergogenic action i.

enhanced recovery of the phosphocreatine power system matches the activity profilent of team sports. Various investigations indicate that both acute and chronic Cr supplementation may contribute to improved training and competition performance in team sports e.

Ahmun et al. Table 5: Sports foods and dietary supplements that are of likely benefit to team sport players adapted from Burke, However, conflicting results are not lacking in the literature Paton et al.

Beta-alanine supplementation, to increase muscle stores of the intracellular buffer carnosine, may also provide benefits and requires further study using protocols suited to team sports Derave et al.

Colostrum supplementation has conflicting reports with respect to its effects on recovery and illness Shing et al. Beetroot juice, a source of nitrate, may enhance sports performance by mechanisms including an increase in exercise economy Wylie et al.

Holway and Spriet summarized the dietary intake studies of team sport athletes published over the past 30 years. It is difficult to make broad generalizations as data are skewed to certain team sports football, basketball and volleyball with little or no contemporary information reported on others e.

cricket, rugby union, water polo, hockey. However, weighted averages for energy intake were Relative to body mass, male team sport athletes reported eating an average of 5. This is less that reported for athletes engaged in individual team sports Burke, Not surprisingly, larger athletes were reported to consume more energy and pre-season intakes were greater than in-season intakes, perhaps to accommodate the additional conditioning work incorporated into the preparatory training phase.

Some evidence suggests the dietary quality of team sport athletes is less than what is reported for athletes involved in individual sports Clark et al. For instance, alcohol intakes of team sport athletes appear higher than other athlete groups Van Erp-Baart et al.

The team culture of celebrating a win and commiserating a loss often leads to excessive consumption of alcohol during the post-game period.

Implications of such behaviour include a decrease in muscle protein synthesis Parr et al. These issues need to be considered by sports nutrition professionals consulting with team sport athletes and highlight the need for a thorough dietary review of individual player habits and the team culture.

Implementation of appropriate systems including a performance kitchen can capture the imagination of players around key nutrition principles, while enhancing team culture. Akermark C, Jacobs I, Rasmusson M, Karlsson J. Ali A, Williams C, Nicholas CW, Foskett A.

Areta JL, Burke LM, Ross ML, Camera DM, West DW, Broad EM, Jeacocke NA, Moore DR, Stellingwerff T, Phillips SM, Hawley JA, Coffey VG. Backhouse SH, Ali A, Biddle SJ, Williams C. Balsom PD, Wood K, Olsson P, Ekblom B. Bangsbo J, Norregaard L, Thorsoe F. Bangsbo J. Barr, McGee.

Bishop D, Claudius B. Burke L. In Can J Appl Physiol. Human Kinetics Publishers: Champaign. pp Burke L, Cox G. The complete guide to Food for sports performance. Sydney: Allen and Unwin. Burke L, Hawley JA. Guidelines for optimal practices. Burke L, Gollan RA, Read RS. Clark M, Reed DB, Crouse SF, Armstrong RB.

Clarke ND, Drust B, MacLaren DP, Reilly T. Clarke ND, Drust B, Maclaren DP, Reilly T. Cornish SM, Chilibeck PD, Burke DG. Cox G, Mujika I, Tumilty D, Burke L. Cox GR, Clark SA, Cox AJ, Halson SL, Hargreaves M, Hawley JA, Jeacocke N, Snow RJ, Yeo WK, Burke LM.

Derave W, Everaert I, Beeckman S, Baguet A. Duthie G, Pyne DB, Hooper S. Edge J, Bishop D, Goodman C. Edwards AM, Noakes TD. Ekblom B. Farajian, P, Kavouras, SA, Yannakoulia, M, Sidossis, LS. Foskett A, Ali A, Gant N. Garrido G, Webster AL, Chamorro M. Garth AK, Burke LM.

Hansen AK, Fischer CP, Plomgaard P, Andersen JL, Saltin B, Pedersen BK.

Flueck Sodium intake and childrens health Leonie 1,2 eTam, Kyburz Sarina Nufrition 2 1 Swiss Sports Nutrition Society, Sport, Switzerland 2 Teamm for Sports Medicine, Swiss Paraplegic Mental wellness techniques, Nottwil, Team sports nutrition. Team sports sporta is highly demanding nuhrition terms of physiological and psychological aspects. Furthermore, the competition schedule is often time constrained and athletes need to travel between games during recovery. Therefore, it seems very important to optimize nutritional strategies around training sessions as well as while traveling or competing. This review discusses a variety of different aspects, which are important in the development of a nutritional strategy in a club. It summarizes how the medical and performance staff of a team can provide the right nutritional strategies to optimize training adaptation and recovery. Furthermore, specific nutritional aspects for female, youth and traveling athletes as well as athletes recovering from injury are discussed. Team sports nutrition

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