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Vitamins and minerals

Vitamins and minerals

Mineralss The Vifamins Checker. Get helpful tips and guidance for everything from fighting Vitamins and minerals to finding the best diets for weight loss All trace minerals are toxic at high levels, and some arsenic, nickel, and chromium can cause cancer.

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In addition to vitamins, the mineralss body requires several minerals to function optimally. Mineral deficiencies are often responsible for symptoms like fatigue, poor sleep, low moods anv lack of focus. You need Satiety and satiety signals types of minerals to support your health: macrominerals, which you need in large amounts, and trace minerals, which you need in smaller quantities.

The macrominerals include calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride and sulfur. Trace minerals include iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluoride and selenium. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the human body -- you need plenty of it to keep your bones and teeth healthy, as well as support muscle and nerve function.

The best sources of calcium include:. Phosphorus helps form your bones and teeth, makes protein for tissue growth and repair, and produces the molecules your cells use for energy.

These foods contain ample phosphorus:. Many plant foods contain phosphorus, but most plants store the mineral as phytic acid, which humans can't digest or absorb. The best way to get phosphorus is from animal foods.

Like the other macrominerals, magnesium supports nerve and muscle function, as well as bone and heart health. You can find magnesium in:. This electrolyte is essential for maintaining fluid balance in your body and helping your muscles contract, among other things.

Many people try to limit their sodium intake and some people need tobut consuming too little sodium can lead to health problems just like consuming too much can. The foods highest in sodium generally aren't the healthiest sources of sodium, and sometimes a single savory snack can nearly reach the daily recommended sodium limit.

However, some whole foods contain trace amounts of sodium, including:. You likely already eat plenty of foods high in sodium, such as bread, pasta, soup, deli meat, sauces and dressings, broths, stocks, canned foods, frozen foods and snack foods. Most people don't need to increase their sodium intake and should limit sodium-rich foods if they tend to eat more than the recommended daily allowance of 2, milligrams.

Another important electrolyte, potassium supports a regular and healthy heartbeat, offsets sodium's effect on blood pressure, supports nerve function and muscle contraction, and moves waste products out of cells. Foods high in potassium include:. Chloride is an electrolyte that works with sodium and potassium to fulfill a variety of roles in the body.

Dietary chloride primarily comes from table salt and sea salt, and most people get enough through the foods they eat daily, but you can maximize chloride intake by eating these foods:. Your body uses sulfur to repair DNA, protect your cells against damage, metabolize food and provide structure to your skin and other connective tissues.

It's an important trace mineral you can get from a variety of foods, including:. Most people know iron for its role in blood production. Most of the iron in your body is found in hemoglobin and myoglobintwo substances essential to the transport and transferring of oxygen throughout your body.

The top food sources of iron include:. This trace mineral is a cofactor for many enzymes, which means it plays a role in lots of chemical reactions that occur in your body, including the metabolism of carbs and protein. The best food sources of manganese are:.

Like manganese, copper is a cofactor for several enzymes. It's also important for proper brain development and connective tissue integrity. Here's where to find copper in food:. Your body needs iodine for proper thyroid function: Without it, your body can't make enough thyroid hormones.

Iodine is especially important for babies and pregnant women, because this mineral is crucial to bone and brain formation. The primary source of iodine in the American diet is iodized salt.

If you consume a lot of salt, you probably get enough iodine. But in case you don't, you can find iodine in these other foods:. Zincthe mineral popularized for its rumored defenses against COVIDhas long been an ingredient in cold medications and throat lozenges.

In addition to its well-known role in immune function, zinc also contributes to wound healing and protein synthesis. The best food sources of zinc include:. Cobalt is found in the body as part of vitamin B and helps your body process and absorb the vitamin.

Most foods contain trace amounts of cobalt, but foods high in vitamin B are particularly high in cobalt. Fluoride keeps your teeth healthy and strong. It also spurs new bone formation, so it's especially important for infants and children.

Most drinking water contains fluoride, although if you have well water, it may not be fluoridated. In addition to water, you can get fluoride from :. Selenium protects cells from damage, promotes reproductive health and thyroid function and supports DNA production.

The most potent food source of selenium is Brazil nuts, and these can actually cause selenium toxicity if consumed too often. Other sources of food high in selenium include:.

Read more : Best Multivitamins for Why You Can Trust CNET. Wellness Nutrition. These Are the Best Food Sources for Every Vitamin You Need Get all the nutrients you need with these foods. See full bio. Amanda Capritto. Skip the supplements and add these healthy foods to your diet.

More Nutrition Recommendations Trouble Sleeping? Your Diet Could Be Preventing Quality Rest The Ultimate Guide to Calculating and Tracking Your Macros Never Make a Boring Salad Again International No Diet Day: Why You Should Ditch Your Diet, and What to Do Instead.

The information contained in this article is for educational and informational purposes only and is not intended as health or medical advice. Always consult a physician or other qualified health provider regarding any questions you may have about a medical condition or health objectives.

Vitamins and Supplements Guides. Best Multivitamins Best Multivitamins for Men Best Multivitamins for Women Best Creatine Supplements Best Probiotics Best Supplements to Gain Weight Best Vitamin Subscription Best Vitamins for Energy Best Vitamins and Supplements for Joint Health Best Vitamins for Healthy Hair, Skin and Nails.

: Vitamins and minerals

What is the required daily intake of vitamins and minerals?

The recommended dietary allowance RDA —the amount most healthy people need each day to remain healthy—has been determined for most vitamins. A safe read more are classified as. The body needs relatively large quantities of Calcium Chloride Magnesium read more are required in fairly large quantities about 1 or 2 grams a day and are considered macronutrients.

They include calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus occurring mainly as phosphate in the body , potassium, and sodium. Minerals required in small amounts trace minerals are considered micronutrients. They include chromium , copper , fluoride, iodine, iron, manganese , molybdenum, selenium , and zinc.

Except for chromium , all of these minerals are incorporated into enzymes or hormones required in metabolism. Chromium helps the body keep blood sugar levels normal. Trace minerals such as arsenic, cobalt, fluoride, nickel, silicon, and vanadium, which may be essential in animal nutrition, have not been established as requirements in human nutrition.

Fluoride helps stabilize the mineral content of bones and teeth by forming a stable compound with calcium and thus helps prevent tooth decay. All trace minerals are toxic at high levels, and some arsenic, nickel, and chromium can cause cancer. Some vitamins such as vitamins C and E and minerals such as selenium act as antioxidants, as do other substances in fruits and vegetables such as beta-carotene.

Antioxidants protect cells against damage by free radicals, which are by-products of the normal activity of cells. Free radicals readily participate in chemical reactions—some useful to the body and some not—and are thought to contribute to such disorders as heart and blood vessel disorders and cancer.

People who eat enough fruits and vegetables, which are rich in antioxidants, are less likely to develop heart and blood vessel disorders and certain cancers. However, whether these benefits are due to antioxidants, other substances in the fruits and vegetables, or other factors in people's diet and lifestyle is not known; also, taking antioxidant supplements has not been shown to prevent disease or mortality and sometimes can cause harm.

Getting enough vitamins and minerals from foods is usually preferable to getting them from supplements. Foods, unlike supplements, contain other substances necessary for good health. Routine use of nutritional supplements is not necessary or beneficial in people who eat a healthy diet.

Some supplements can be harmful. For example, too much vitamin A Vitamin A Excess Vitamin A excess toxicity can be sudden acute , usually due to accidental ingestion by children, or chronic. Consuming too much vitamin A causes hair loss, cracked lips, dry skin, weakened read more can cause hair loss, cracked lips, dry skin, weakened bones, headaches, increased blood calcium levels, and an uncommon disorder called idiopathic intracranial hypertension, Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is characterized by increased pressure within the skull intracranial pressure.

What triggers the disorder is unknown. When vitamins are taken as supplements, they are introduced into the body at levels that could never be achieved by eating even the healthiest of diets.

For instance, provitamin A beta-carotene in food is accompanied by hundreds of its carotenoid relatives. Simply taking a vitamin pill is not an instant fix for feeling run down or lacking in energy. When you artificially remove one of them and provide it completely out of context, it may not be as effective and, in the case of some vitamins, can have negative effects.

Vitamin and mineral supplements can also interfere with prescription medicines and medical treatments. In extreme cases, for example, where people take times the recommended dietary intake RDI , this can stop the work of anticonvulsant drugs, such as those used in epilepsy.

Many people mistakenly believe that since small amounts of vitamins are good for you, then large amounts must be better. For a healthy adult, if supplements are used, they should generally be taken at levels close to the RDI. Taking vitamin and mineral supplements is a short-term measure.

The long-term use of some high-dose supplements can lead to symptoms of toxicity. If you feel that you could be lacking in certain vitamins and minerals, it may be better to look at changing your diet and lifestyle rather than reaching for supplements.

If you need help, see your doctor or a dietitian. Some complementary medicines , such as vitamin and mineral supplements can interact with prescription medicines and medical treatments. If you are advised to take vitamin supplements, it is a good idea to see a dietitian , who can work with your doctor or other health professionals to provide dietary advice related to your situation.

And if you do need to take a supplement, it is best to take multivitamins at the recommended dietary level, rather than single nutrient supplements or high-dose multivitamins. Remember, to report any complementary medicines including vitamin and mineral supplements you are taking when you visit any healthcare professional.

This page has been produced in consultation with and approved by:. Learn all about alcohol - includes standard drink size, health risks and effects, how to keep track of your drinking, binge drinking, how long it takes to leave the body, tips to lower intake.

The Alexander technique stresses that movement should be economical and needs only the minimum amount of energy and effort. A common misconception is that anorexia nervosa only affects young women, but it affects all genders of all ages.

Antioxidants scavenge free radicals from the body's cells, and prevent or reduce the damage caused by oxidation. Antipsychotic medications work by altering brain chemistry to help reduce psychotic symptoms like hallucinations, delusions and disordered thinking. Content on this website is provided for information purposes only.

Information about a therapy, service, product or treatment does not in any way endorse or support such therapy, service, product or treatment and is not intended to replace advice from your doctor or other registered health professional.

The information and materials contained on this website are not intended to constitute a comprehensive guide concerning all aspects of the therapy, product or treatment described on the website.

All users are urged to always seek advice from a registered health care professional for diagnosis and answers to their medical questions and to ascertain whether the particular therapy, service, product or treatment described on the website is suitable in their circumstances.

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Vitamin and mineral supplements - what to know. Actions for this page Listen Print. Summary Read the full fact sheet. On this page. About vitamin supplements Vitamins and minerals are obtained from food Vitamin and mineral deficiencies Vitamin pills are not miracle cures Vitamin use and cancer claims Vitamin and mineral supplements can be dangerous Vitamin and mineral supplements are a short-term measure Seek professional advice when taking vitamin and mineral supplements Where to get help.

About vitamin supplements Vitamins are organic compounds that our bodies use, in very small amounts, for a variety of metabolic processes. Vitamins and minerals are obtained from food Research indicates that most of the vitamins you get from the food you eat are better than those contained in pills.

Vitamin and mineral deficiencies Our body only needs a small amount of vitamins and minerals every day External Link. However, some people may need supplements to correct vitamin or mineral deficiencies and this includes: pregnant women and women who are breastfeeding people who smoke , drink alcohol in excess or use illegal drugs crash dieters or those on very strict diets the elderly especially those who are disabled or chronically ill some vegetarians or vegans women with heavy periods people with food allergies those with malabsorption problems such as diarrhoea , coeliac disease , cystic fibrosis or pancreatitis.

Folate and pregnancy Women who are pregnant or planning a pregnancy are recommended folic acid also known as folate supplements to reduce their risk of having a child with a neural tube defect , such as spina bifida. Vegan diets and vitamin supplements People who follow vegan diets , especially if pregnant, may benefit from vitamin B12 supplements.

Vitamin pills are not miracle cures It is commonly believed that taking mega-doses of certain vitamins will act like medicine to cure or prevent certain ailments. Stress, tiredness and vitamin pills Vitamin supplements are commonly considered to be an antidote to stress.

Anti-ageing vitamins Vitamin E is often singled out as the potential fountain of youth. Vitamin use and cancer claims Some claims have been made that certain vitamins can treat different cancers. For example: Vitamin A beta-carotene in large doses does not cure cancer and can be toxic, particularly if taken as pills rather than food.

Studies have linked vitamin A to an increase in other cancers — such as lung cancer in smokers, if taken in supplement form. Although there is some evidence vitamin E could play a small role in preventing some cancers, equally there is evidence that it could speed up the onset of other types of cancer.

However, this has not been proved or disproved. High doses of antioxidants are unlikely to help with the effectiveness of conventional cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

In fact, megadoses of antioxidants can interfere with some medical treatments for cancer by helping to protect the cancer cells that the therapies aim to destroy.

Some studies have shown prostate , breast and lung cancer risk are not decreased by taking high-dose supplements containing vitamins E or C or selenium. Vitamin and mineral supplements can be dangerous Proper balance and adequate levels of essential nutrients is important for a range of complex processes in our body.

High doses of vitamin supplements are unsafe Many people mistakenly believe that since small amounts of vitamins are good for you, then large amounts must be better.

Taking higher than recommended doses of some vitamins may cause health problems. Such as: Vitamins A, D, E and K are fat soluble, which means they are stored in the body and if taken in high doses can be toxic.

High doses of some water-soluble vitamins, such as vitamin B6, can also become toxic. Large folate intakes can hide vitamin B12 deficiencies. High levels of vitamin B6 have also been linked to some types of nerve damage.

Doses of vitamin C above one gram can cause diarrhoea.

Micronutrients: Types, Functions, Benefits and More

All trace minerals are toxic at high levels, and some arsenic, nickel, and chromium can cause cancer. Some vitamins such as vitamins C and E and minerals such as selenium act as antioxidants, as do other substances in fruits and vegetables such as beta-carotene.

Antioxidants protect cells against damage by free radicals, which are by-products of the normal activity of cells. Free radicals readily participate in chemical reactions—some useful to the body and some not—and are thought to contribute to such disorders as heart and blood vessel disorders and cancer.

People who eat enough fruits and vegetables, which are rich in antioxidants, are less likely to develop heart and blood vessel disorders and certain cancers. However, whether these benefits are due to antioxidants, other substances in the fruits and vegetables, or other factors in people's diet and lifestyle is not known; also, taking antioxidant supplements has not been shown to prevent disease or mortality and sometimes can cause harm.

Getting enough vitamins and minerals from foods is usually preferable to getting them from supplements. Foods, unlike supplements, contain other substances necessary for good health. Routine use of nutritional supplements is not necessary or beneficial in people who eat a healthy diet.

Some supplements can be harmful. For example, too much vitamin A Vitamin A Excess Vitamin A excess toxicity can be sudden acute , usually due to accidental ingestion by children, or chronic.

Consuming too much vitamin A causes hair loss, cracked lips, dry skin, weakened read more can cause hair loss, cracked lips, dry skin, weakened bones, headaches, increased blood calcium levels, and an uncommon disorder called idiopathic intracranial hypertension, Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is characterized by increased pressure within the skull intracranial pressure.

What triggers the disorder is unknown. People have daily or near daily headaches read more which is characterized by increased pressure within the skull. After extensive research, however, neither of these claims has been shown to be true. Large-scale studies have consistently shown little benefit in taking mega-doses of supplements.

In fact, there is some evidence that taking high-dose supplements to prevent or cure major chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer , may be harmful to your health. Vitamin supplements are commonly considered to be an antidote to stress. Popping a pill will not likely cure persistent tiredness either.

If you are feeling run down, it is more likely to be due to stress, depression , insufficient sleep or other factors, rather than a vitamin deficiency. If you feel like this regularly, seek medical advice. Vitamin E is often singled out as the potential fountain of youth. However, there is no evidence that taking large doses of any vitamin can stall or reverse the effects of ageing.

Neither can one vitamin restore a flagging sex drive or cure infertility. Some claims have been made that certain vitamins can treat different cancers. However, research shows this is not the case.

For example:. Proper balance and adequate levels of essential nutrients is important for a range of complex processes in our body. When vitamins are taken as supplements, they are introduced into the body at levels that could never be achieved by eating even the healthiest of diets.

For instance, provitamin A beta-carotene in food is accompanied by hundreds of its carotenoid relatives. Simply taking a vitamin pill is not an instant fix for feeling run down or lacking in energy. When you artificially remove one of them and provide it completely out of context, it may not be as effective and, in the case of some vitamins, can have negative effects.

Vitamin and mineral supplements can also interfere with prescription medicines and medical treatments. In extreme cases, for example, where people take times the recommended dietary intake RDI , this can stop the work of anticonvulsant drugs, such as those used in epilepsy.

Many people mistakenly believe that since small amounts of vitamins are good for you, then large amounts must be better. For a healthy adult, if supplements are used, they should generally be taken at levels close to the RDI.

Taking vitamin and mineral supplements is a short-term measure. The long-term use of some high-dose supplements can lead to symptoms of toxicity.

If you feel that you could be lacking in certain vitamins and minerals, it may be better to look at changing your diet and lifestyle rather than reaching for supplements. If you need help, see your doctor or a dietitian. Some complementary medicines , such as vitamin and mineral supplements can interact with prescription medicines and medical treatments.

If you are advised to take vitamin supplements, it is a good idea to see a dietitian , who can work with your doctor or other health professionals to provide dietary advice related to your situation. And if you do need to take a supplement, it is best to take multivitamins at the recommended dietary level, rather than single nutrient supplements or high-dose multivitamins.

Remember, to report any complementary medicines including vitamin and mineral supplements you are taking when you visit any healthcare professional. This page has been produced in consultation with and approved by:. Learn all about alcohol - includes standard drink size, health risks and effects, how to keep track of your drinking, binge drinking, how long it takes to leave the body, tips to lower intake.

The Alexander technique stresses that movement should be economical and needs only the minimum amount of energy and effort. A common misconception is that anorexia nervosa only affects young women, but it affects all genders of all ages. Antioxidants scavenge free radicals from the body's cells, and prevent or reduce the damage caused by oxidation.

Antipsychotic medications work by altering brain chemistry to help reduce psychotic symptoms like hallucinations, delusions and disordered thinking. Content on this website is provided for information purposes only. Information about a therapy, service, product or treatment does not in any way endorse or support such therapy, service, product or treatment and is not intended to replace advice from your doctor or other registered health professional.

The information and materials contained on this website are not intended to constitute a comprehensive guide concerning all aspects of the therapy, product or treatment described on the website. All users are urged to always seek advice from a registered health care professional for diagnosis and answers to their medical questions and to ascertain whether the particular therapy, service, product or treatment described on the website is suitable in their circumstances.

Water-soluble vitamins vitamin C and the B-complex vitamins , such as vitamin B6 , vitamin B12 , and folate must dissolve in water before they can be absorbed by the body, and therefore cannot be stored.

Any water-soluble vitamins unused by the body is primarily lost through urine. Minerals are inorganic elements present in soil and water, which are absorbed by plants or consumed by animals.

copper , iodine , and zinc needed in very small amounts. In the U. and Canada. The DRIs are specific to age, gender, and life stages, and cover more than 40 nutrient substances.

The guidelines are based on available reports of deficiency and toxicity of each nutrient. Learn more about vitamins and minerals and their recommended intakes in the table below. A diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables , whole grains , good protein packages , and healthful fats should provide most of the nutrients needed for good health.

But not everyone manages to eat a healthful diet. Multivitamins can play an important role when nutritional requirements are not met through diet alone. Learn more about vitamin supplementation. Vitamins and their precise requirements have been controversial since their discovery in the late s and early s.

It was the combined efforts of epidemiologists, physicians, chemists, and physiologists that led to our modern day understanding of vitamins and minerals.

After years of observation, experiments, and trial and error, they were able to distinguish that some diseases were not caused by infections or toxins—a common belief at the time—but by vitamin deficiencies.

Soon after, researchers determined specific amounts of vitamins needed to avoid diseases of deficiency. The discovery of all vitamins occurred by Vitamins were obtained only from food until the s when commercially made supplements of certain vitamins became available.

Vitamin and mineral supplements - what to know - Better Health Channel Try taking a food-first approach with this guide to the top food sources for every vitamin and mineral. Page last reviewed: 03 August Next review due: 03 August Thiamin vitamin B1. The doctor may also refer them to a dietitian for nutritional assistance. However, to ensure safety, a person should only take supplements under the guidance of a doctor or registered dietitian.
Support The Nutrition Source How gastric bypass surgery can help with type 2 diabetes remission. Several nutrients have been studied to see if they can help prevent dementia. Healthy Living Aging in Place Sleep Online Therapy. Healthy eating. Related information. The Nutrition Source does not recommend or endorse any products. However, some vitamins and minerals may also help prevent and….
Vitamins and minerals

Vitamins and minerals -

Most vitamins dissolve in water and are therefore known as water-soluble. While each water-soluble vitamin has a unique role, their functions are related. For example, most B vitamins act as coenzymes that help trigger important chemical reactions. A lot of these reactions are necessary for energy production.

As you can see, water-soluble vitamins play an important role in producing energy but also have several other functions. Sources and Recommended Dietary Allowances RDAs or Adequate Intakes AIs of water-soluble vitamins are 7 , 8 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 :.

After consumption, fat-soluble vitamins are stored in your liver and fatty tissues for future use. Sources and recommended intakes of fat-soluble vitamins are 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 :. Macrominerals are needed in larger amounts than trace minerals in order to perform their specific roles in your body.

Sources and recommended intakes of the macrominerals are 21 , 22 , 23 , 24, 25 , 26 , 27 :. Trace minerals are needed in smaller amounts than macrominerals but still enable important functions in your body. Sources and recommended intakes of trace minerals are 28 , 29 , 30 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 :.

Micronutrients can be divided into four groups — water-soluble vitamins, fat-soluble vitamins, macrominerals and trace minerals. The functions, food sources and recommended intakes of each vitamin and mineral vary.

Consuming an adequate amount of the different vitamins and minerals is key to optimal health and may even help fight disease. This is because micronutrients are part of nearly every process in your body. Moreover, certain vitamins and minerals can act as antioxidants.

For example, research has linked an adequate dietary intake of vitamins A and C with a lower risk of some types of cancer 4 , 5. Research has linked low blood levels of selenium to a higher risk of heart disease. Additionally, a review of 22 studies noticed that adequate calcium intake decreases the risk of death from heart disease and all other causes These studies suggest that consuming enough of all micronutrients — especially those with antioxidant properties — provides ample health benefits.

Micronutrients are part of nearly every process in your body. Some even act as antioxidants. Due to their important role in health, they may protect against diseases. Most healthy adults can get an adequate amount of micronutrients from a balanced diet, but there are some common nutrient deficiencies that affect certain populations.

The signs, symptoms and long-term effects of these deficiencies depend on each nutrient but can be detrimental to the proper functioning of your body and optimal health. They are most likely to occur with large doses of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K since these nutrients can be stored in your liver and fatty tissues.

They cannot be excreted from your body like water-soluble vitamins. A micronutrient toxicity usually develops from supplementing with excess amounts — rarely from food sources. Signs and symptoms of toxicity vary depending on the nutrient. One study examined over 18, people with a high risk of lung cancer due to past smoking or asbestos exposure.

The intervention group received two types of vitamin A — 30 mg of beta-carotene and 25, IU of retinyl palmitate a day The safest and most effective way to get adequate vitamin and mineral intake appears to be from food sources 51 , However, people at risk of specific nutrient deficiencies may benefit from taking supplements under the supervision of a doctor.

But you can get these from dried beans, seeds, nuts, and leafy green vegetables like kale. Vitamin B12 is important for making red blood cells and keeping nerves working well. It is found only in animal products. If you don't eat meat, you can get vitamin B12 from eggs, milk and other dairy foods, and fortified breakfast cereals.

Vegans vegetarians who eat no animal products at all, including dairy products may need to take vitamin B12 supplements. Lots of people wonder if they should take vitamin or mineral supplements.

If your diet includes a wide variety of foods — including whole-grain products, fresh fruits and vegetables, dairy products, nuts, seeds, eggs, and meats — you probably get the vitamins and minerals your body needs.

There are many supplements on the market, and of course their makers want you to buy them. Beware of unproven claims about the benefits of taking more than recommended amounts of any vitamin or mineral.

Healthy teens usually don't need supplements if they eat a well-rounded diet. Check with your doctor before taking vitamin or mineral supplements.

Some vitamins and minerals can cause health problems if you get too much of them. Talk to your doctor or a dietitian if you're skipping meals, dieting, are a picky eater, or have any concerns about your diet.

They can answer your questions and help you create a healthy eating plan that includes the nutrients your body needs.

KidsHealth For Teens Vitamins and Minerals. en español: Vitaminas y minerales. Medically reviewed by: Mary L. Section Navigation.

Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Syndicate. Micronutrient Facts. Minus Related Pages. The role of six essential micronutrients is outlined below. On This Page.

Iron Vitamin A Vitamin D Iodine Folate Zinc References. Iron Iron is critical for motor and cognitive development. Children and pregnant women are especially vulnerable to the consequences of iron deficiency 3.

Iron deficiency is a leading cause of anemia which is defined as low hemoglobin concentration. Anemia during pregnancy increases the risk of death for the mother and low birth weight for the infant. Worldwide, maternal and neonatal deaths total between 2. Babies fed only breast milk, only formula, or a mix of breast milk and formula have different needs when it comes to iron.

Preventing iron deficiency helps improve children's learning ability and cognitive development. Vitamin A Vitamin A supports healthy eyesight and immune system functions.

Children with vitamin A deficiency face an increased risk of blindness and death from infections such as measles and diarrhea 6. Globally, vitamin A deficiency affects an estimated million preschool-age children 6.

Providing vitamin A supplements to children ages months is highly effective in reducing deaths from all causes where vitamin A deficiency is a public health concern 6.

Vitamin D Vitamin D builds strong bones by helping the body absorb calcium 7. This helps protect older adults from osteoporosis. Vitamin D deficiency causes bone diseases, including rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults 7.

Vitamin D helps the immune system resist bacteria and virsues 7. Vitamin D is required for muscle and nerve functions 7. Available data suggest that vitamin D deficiency may be widespread globally 8. Bodies make vitamin D from sunlight, but this varies based on geography, skin color, air pollution, and other factors.

Also, sunlight exposure needs to be limited to avoid risk of skin cancer. All children need vitamin D beginning shortly after birth. Globally an estimated 1. Iodine content in most foods and beverages is low.

The amount of iodine added to salt can be adjusted so that people maintain adequate iodine intake even if they consume less salt The American Thyroid Association and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend that pregnant or breastfeeding women take a supplement every day containing micrograms of iodine.

The American Thyroid Association recommends women who are planning a pregnancy consume a daily iodine supplement starting at least 3 months in advance of pregnancy. Fortifying salt with iodine successfully increases intake of iodine. Folate Everyone needs folate vitamin B9 to make new cells every day.

Folate is essential in the earliest days of fetal growth for healthy development of the brain and spine Folic acid is another form of vitamin B9. Women of reproductive age need micrograms of folic acid every day Ensuring sufficient levels of folate in women prior to conception can reduce neural tube defects such as spina bifida and anencephaly Providing folic acid supplements to women years and fortifying foods such as wheat flour with folic acid reduces the incidence of neural tube defects and neonatal deaths Folate is especially important before and during pregnancy.

Zinc Zinc promotes immune functions and helps people resist infectious diseases including diarrhea, pneumonia and malaria 14,15,

Vitamins and minerals are Vitamins and minerals nutrients. That is, they cannot be Vitamins and minerals mimerals the body from other substances annd the diet. Thus, vitamins and minerals must be consumed in the diet. Vitamins Overview of Vitamins Vitamins are a vital part of a healthy diet. The recommended dietary allowance RDA —the amount most healthy people need each day to remain healthy—has been determined for most vitamins. A safe read more are classified as.

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