Category: Home

Beta-alanine and anaerobic performance

Beta-alanine and anaerobic performance

Beta-alsnine is also known Beta-alanine and anaerobic performance Fatigue and medication side effects an anaerobuc that is capable of preventing Beta-alanine and anaerobic performance accumulation of oxidized products derived anaerobiv lipid components of biological Bta-alanine []. Biological role of carnosine in the functioning of excitable tissues. Article PubMed Central CAS PubMed Google Scholar Sale C, Saunders B, Hudson S, Wise JA, Harris RC, Sunderland CD. While cognitive performance was not affected, beta-alanine resulted in moderate improvements in peak power, marksmanship, and target engagement speed, compared to placebo [ 77 ].

Beta-alanine and anaerobic performance -

At posttest, there was no difference between groups during the 1km and 10km time trials. In the supramaximal cycling test, total time to exhaustion was significantly improved in the supplemental group compared to the control group.

Out of all the evidence based literature looking at the utility of Beta-Alanine to improve sprint performance in athletes, the ones that showed performance improvements displayed similar themes in the testing of subjects.

These themes can help identify which type of athletes would benefit most from its use. Similarly, in the studies that found positive effects as a result of supplementation, blood lactate also rose during the exercise bouts as muscle pH fell. The literature on Beta-Alanine use for sprint performance that did not adhere to these guidelines showed that supplementation was largely ineffective.

Brisola et al, looked the effects of Beta Alanine on specific water polo tests that included six sprints of 10 meters with a 17 second recovery period followed by a 30 minute distance swim followed by another set of six sprints.

In between pre and post testing, subjects consumed 4. Lastly, Saunders et al, looked at Beta-Alanine supplementation on repeated sprints during intermittent exercise performed in hypoxia. Subjects consumed 6. Subjects performed five, six second sprints with a 24 second active recovery interval while attached to a harness to detect mean and peak power output.

The three studies mentioned did not test the subjects in the conditions mentioned that would allow hydrogen ions and lactate to rise, while simultaneously dropping muscle pH. Thus, at the conclusion of the studies no beneficial results were found.

Across all the literature that was considered for this review, there was a large overlap in the dosing strategies used for studies that did and did not find positive ergogenic effects.

For example, Clause et al, and Smith et al, both used dosing strategies of 6. For example, Ducker et al, and Kern et al, both found performance improvements in subjects after supplementing with Beta Alanine.

This is barring that at the least, the minimal effective dose is consumed and that there is sufficient time for Carnosine levels to rise such as over a loading period.

Review of the current evidence on Beta-Alanine supplementation supports its use as a performance enhancer for anaerobic sprint performance. As well as secondarily dependent on the magnitude of central fatigue, decreasing calcium sensitivity and improvements in perceived effort. This review has described the mechanisms behind the anaerobic sprint performance improvements that can be expected with Beta-Alanine supplementation.

It has identified the conditions in both clinical testing and sports where supplementation will be the most efficacious, as well as outlined supplementation protocols for athletes looking to reap the ergogenic benefits of Beta-Alanine supplementation. However, a potential obstacle in supplementation is remembering to consume the supplement consistently.

Every study that was considered in this review, with the exception of the one by Glenn et al, broke up the daily dose into various micro doses to minimize paresthesia and prevent bias.

This may make it challenging for athletes to consistently meet the required doses each day. Thus, future research should be conducted to see if taking Beta-Alanine less frequently, such as once per day, is more or equally as effective for its uptake and increasing Carnosine levels.

Practically, athletes may be more likely to be more compliant with a supplementation protocol when they have to remember to consume it less often, especially, for athletes with demanding time schedules.

Additive Benefits of β-Alanine Supplementation and Sprint-Interval Training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. The effect of β-alanine supplementation on cycling time trials of different length.

Eur J Sport Sci. Beta-Alanine Supplementation Improves Throwing Velocities in Repeated Sprint Ability and m Swimming Performance in Young Water Polo Players. Pediatr Exerc Sci. β-alanine supplementation improves YoYo intermittent recovery test performance.

J Int Soc Sports Nutr. Published Aug Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning. Human Kinetics. Exercise Physiology: Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance. Mcgraw-Hill Education. Effects of Acute Beta-Alanine Supplementation on Anaerobic Performance in Trained Female Cyclists.

J Nutr Sci Vitaminol Tokyo. Thirty-minutes after supplementation, participants performed three repeated Wingate cycling tests with 2 min of active rest after each.

Fatigue index, mean power, and peak power were measured during each Wingate. Lactate, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion RPE were measured at rest, immediately after each Wingate, and after each active rest period.

Overall, available research indicates that beta-alanine provides a modest benefit for exercise lasting up to approximately 25 min in duration. To date, research beyond this time frame is limited and does not demonstrate a consistent positive effect. Beta-alanine may improve exercise duration during tasks requiring a greater contribution from aerobic energy pathways.

The physical working capacity at fatigue threshold PWC FT indicates the highest cycling power output that results in a non-significant increase in vastus lateralis muscle activation. This measurement is a validated and reliable method of determining the power output at which the onset of neuromuscular fatigue occurs [ 71 ], and has been used to determine the effects of beta-alanine supplementation on neuromuscular fatigue.

In , Stout et al. Similar results were reported in female participants the following year During 6 weeks of high-intensity interval training, Smith et al.

Despite marked improvements, the relative effect calculated was below , as the group consuming a placebo improved by Using slightly different methodology to quantify neuromuscular fatigue, Smith-Ryan et al.

The effects of beta-alanine on neuromuscular fatigue appear to be more pronounced in longer studies utilizing older subjects. Collectively, the evidence suggests that beta-alanine supplementation attenuates neuromuscular fatigue, particularly in older subjects.

Improvements in fatigue threshold may be augmented with concurrent participation in high-intensity interval training. Studies investigating the effects of beta-alanine on strength outcomes have reported mixed findings.

While short-term 30 days studies by Hoffman et al. In a similar length study 4 weeks , Derave et al. In contrast, Sale et al. It has been hypothesized that the documented improvements in training volume and fatigue may translate to meaningful changes over prolonged interventions.

Despite improvements from baseline testing, Kern and Robinson [ 66 ] did not show eight weeks of beta-alanine supplementation to significantly improve flexed arm hang performance in wrestlers or football players compared to placebo.

In a week intervention, Kendrick et al. Finally, Hoffman et al. Collectively, the evidence suggests that beta-alanine may improve indices of training volume and fatigue for resistance exercise, but more long-term studies are needed to clarify potential effects on strength and body composition compared to placebo.

Beta-alanine appears to increase training volume, however, current research does not indicate an additive benefit on strength gains during resistance training.

The training and duties of military personnel and other tactical athletes often consist of prolonged and rigorous exercise, resulting in reductions in physical and cognitive performance [ 77 ].

Beta-alanine supplementation may be advantageous in this population, potentially attenuating fatigue, enhancing neuromuscular performance, and reducing oxidative stress. In , an expert panel published a review regarding the use of beta-alanine in military personnel [ 78 ].

The panel concluded that there was insufficient evidence to recommend the use of beta-alanine by military personnel [ 78 ]. More recently, the use of beta-alanine in tactical personnel was directly investigated by Hoffman et al.

Soldiers involved in military training supplemented with either beta-alanine or placebo for 28 days, with researchers testing a number of outcomes pertaining to physical and cognitive performance. While cognitive performance was not affected, beta-alanine resulted in moderate improvements in peak power, marksmanship, and target engagement speed, compared to placebo [ 77 ].

A subsequent study by Hoffman et al. Recently, it was reported that beta-alanine had no significant effect on brain carnosine or cognitive function in non-tactical athletes [ 80 ]. While evidence in this population is scarce, it would appear that beta-alanine supplementation yields promising results for tasks relevant to tactical personnel.

More research is needed to determine which tasks are consistently improved with supplementation. The combined effects of beta-alanine with other ergogenic aids, such as sodium bicarbonate, creatine, and multi-ingredient pre-workout formulas, have gained popularity.

Due to the potential positive effects of beta-alanine during high-intensity exercise, it has been hypothesized that combining it with other ergogenic aids may further augment performance and proton buffering.

Sodium bicarbonate SB supplementation has been shown to acutely increase bicarbonate levels, blood pH, and high-intensity exercise performance [ 81 ], prompting interest in combined supplementation with beta-alanine.

Sale et al. Tobias et al. Despite non-significant differences between groups, authors of other studies have calculated the probability of an additive effect with combined beta-alanine and SB supplementation. In a 2,m rowing time trial, Hobson et al. In swimmers, de Salles Painelli et al. In contrast to these studies, other findings do not suggest a synergistic effect between beta-alanine and SB.

In a series of two repeated m sprints in swimmers, Mero et al. Ducker et al. Results demonstrated that SB supplementation improved performance more than placebo, beta-alanine, or a combination of beta-alanine and SB.

Saunders et al. Results indicated that neither beta-alanine, SB, nor beta-alanine plus SB improved performance on the sprint test.

Bellinger et al. It is also important to note that the protocols employed by Ducker et al. Collectively, the body of literature suggests a modest additive effect when adding SB to beta-alanine supplementation in exercise bouts in which metabolic acidosis may be performance-limiting. While this additive benefit is not typically revealed with traditional statistical analyses, studies using magnitude-based inferences have suggested that a modest additive effect is likely to exist [ 62 , 65 , 68 ].

The studies reviewed have used supplement dosages ranging from 4. However, the only study to indicate a statistically significant synergistic effect of beta-alanine and SB [ 82 ] employed a unique dosing protocol for SB, providing daily doses of 0. Individual responses to SB supplementation may vary, likely due to side effects including headache and gastrointestinal discomfort [ 68 , 85 , 87 ].

In terms of practical application, those wishing to combine beta-alanine and SB supplementation must carefully evaluate the dosage and timing with which SB is consumed and weigh the modest additive benefit against the risk of potentially ergolytic side effects.

Given the proton-buffering capacity of muscle carnosine [ 51 ], beta-alanine is most commonly purported to improve performance in exercise of high enough intensity to induce intramuscular acidosis. Creatine supplementation has been consistently shown to improve high-intensity exercise performance, primarily by increasing phosphorylcreatine and adenosine triphosphate ATP availability [ 88 ].

The first study investigating co-ingestion of these ingredients was reported in a published abstract by Harris et al. Similarly, Hoffman et al. Notably, these studies did not include a treatment arm ingesting beta-alanine alone.

Zoeller et al. Stout et al. Kresta et al. The creatine group trended toward an increase in VO 2 max, while the beta-alanine group trended toward an improvement in rate of fatigue on a series of two Wingate tests.

However, no significant effects on performance were noted for any treatment arm, and results did not suggest a synergistic effect between creatine and beta-alanine. Two studies have shown additive ergogenic effects when beta-alanine is combined with creatine supplementation [ 76 , 89 ], but did not include a treatment group ingesting beta-alanine only.

Other studies including a beta-alanine treatment arm have not demonstrated a synergistic effect between beta-alanine and creatine [ 71 , 90 ]. Despite promising findings from initial studies [ 76 , 89 ], more research is needed to evaluate potential synergy between creatine and beta-alanine supplementation.

Multi-ingredient pre- and post-workout supplements have become increasingly popular, with formulations that include a number of purportedly ergogenic ingredients including creatine, caffeine, branched-chain amino acids, whey protein, nitric oxide precursors, and other isolated amino acids [ 91 — 98 ].

Such supplements are typically consumed once per day prior to training, with beta-alanine doses generally ranging from 2 to 4 g single boluses. When ingested acutely before exercise, previous studies have shown these multi-ingredient supplements to improve muscular endurance [ 92 , 98 ], running time to exhaustion [ 91 ], and power output [ 98 ].

Some studies have documented improvements in subjective feelings of energy and focus [ 91 , 92 ], while Gonzalez et al. When taken chronically for a period of 4 to 8 weeks, multi-ingredient pre-workout supplements have been shown to increase measures of strength [ 93 , 94 , 97 ], power output [ 96 ], and lean mass [ 93 — 95 ].

In contrast, Outlaw et al. These discrepant findings may be attributed to the short duration of supplementation 8 days , or the substantial improvements in lean mass, strength, and peak power output displayed by the placebo group. Overall, the body of literature suggests that acute and chronic ingestion of multi-ingredient pre-workout supplements can contribute to improvements in performance and body composition.

It is difficult to attribute these ergogenic effects directly to beta-alanine, as multi-ingredient supplements include a wide range of ergogenic ingredients that may improve performance independently e. It typically takes a number of weeks at least 2 weeks for beta-alanine supplementation to yield meaningful increases in muscle carnosine content [ 3 , 19 ].

As such, it is unlikely that beta-alanine is the primary ingredient improving performance outcomes in studies utilizing acute, one-time supplementation.

In studies extending over 4 to 8 weeks, the likelihood of beta-alanine contributing to improvements in performance and indirect effects on body composition is greater. While it is difficult to determine the relative contributions of individual ingredients, research has demonstrated that multi-ingredient pre-workout supplements containing 2 to 4 g of beta-alanine are safe and efficacious when taken acutely, or chronically for up to 8 weeks.

Co-ingestion of beta-alanine with sodium bicarbonate or creatine have modest additive ergogenic benefits; ingestion of beta-alanine as part of a multi-ingredient pre-workout product may be effective, if the supplementation period is sufficient to increase carnosine levels and the product is taken for at least 4 weeks.

Decades of literature support a potential for carnosine to influence some mechanisms related to health including antioxidant properties, anti-aging, immune enhancing, and neurotransmitter actions.

However, the majority of these health benefits have been explored in vitro and in animal models. Carnosine is widely considered an important anti-glycating agent that serves to prevent reactions that threaten to impact the structure and function of proteins in the body.

Advanced glycation end products are associated with the aging process and diabetic complications, but carnosine is thought to reduce the formation of these end products [ , ].

Carnosine is also known to be an antioxidant that is capable of preventing the accumulation of oxidized products derived from lipid components of biological membranes [ , ]. The antioxidant mechanism of carnosine has been postulated to be due to metal chelation or free radical scavenging [ ].

The combination of histidine-containing compounds, such as carnosine, at near physiological concentrations, have resulted in synergistic antioxidant activity [ 37 ].

Minimal data in humans exists regarding the potential antioxidant effect of increasing muscle carnosine vis-a-vis beta-alanine. Initial research suggests that beta-alanine may effectively reduce lipid peroxidation and mitigate accumulation of free radicals when combined with aerobic exercise in men and women [ , ].

Future research evaluating potential anti-aging effects and the impact of potential antioxidant properties in humans would be important to explore, especially due to the positive effects beta-alanine has shown in older populations [ 24 , 73 ].

Interestingly, humans also have carnosine within the brain, eye, and heart tissue [ 37 , ]. Therefore some initial data has explored the neuronal effects of carnosine [ 80 , ], as well as potential effects on cardiac tissue and heart rate [ 60 ].

Future research exploring the effects of beta-alanine to induce changes in carnosine concentrations in these tissues would be beneficial, as well as explorations of potential physiological effects in humans.

An additional potential function of carnosine has been linked to improvements in calcium sensitivity in muscle fibers [ , ]. As a result of improved calcium sensitivity, there may be a direct impact on muscular performance. This mechanism has not yet been fully explored in humans.

One recent paper by Hannah et al. Future studies should further explore this mechanism. Lastly, there is a need for long-term safety data on beta-alanine supplementation as well as more information on potential benefits in special populations such as elderly and tactical athletes.

Four weeks of beta-alanine supplementation 4—6 g daily significantly augments muscle carnosine concentrations, thereby acting as an intracellular pH buffer. Beta-alanine supplementation currently appears to be safe in healthy populations at recommended doses. The only reported side effect is paraesthesia i.

Beta-alanine attenuates neuromuscular fatigue, particularly in older subjects, and preliminary evidence indicates that beta-alanine may improve tactical performance.

Combining beta-alanine with other single or multi-ingredient supplements may be advantageous when the dose of beta-alanine is sufficient i. More research is needed to determine the effects of beta-alanine on strength, endurance performance beyond 25 min in duration, and other health-related benefits associated with carnosine.

Harris RC, Tallon MJ, Dunnett M, Boobis L, Coakley J, Kim HJ, et al. The absorption of orally supplied beta-alanine and its effect on muscle carnosine synthesis in human vastus lateralis.

Amino Acids. doi: Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Dunnett M, Harris RC. Influence of oral beta-alanine and L-histidine supplementation on the carnosine content of the gluteus medius. Equine Vet J Suppl. PubMed Google Scholar.

Hill CA, Harris RC, Kim HJ, Harris BD, Sale C, Boobis LH, et al. Influence of beta-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity. Baguet A, Reyngoudt H, Pottier A, Everaert I, Callens S, Achten E, et al.

Carnosine loading and washout in human skeletal muscles. J Appl Physiol. Harris RC, Jones G, Hill CH, Kendrick IP, Boobis L, Kim CK, et al.

The carnosine content of vastus lateralis in vegetarians and omnivores. FASEB J. Article CAS Google Scholar. Tallon MJ, Harris RC, Boobis LH, Fallowfield JL, Wise JA. The carnosine content of vastus lateralis is elevated in resistance-trained bodybuilders. J Strength Cond Res.

Baguet A, Everaert I, Hespel P, Petrovic M, Achten E, Derave W. A new method for non-invasive estimation of human muscle fiber type composition. PLoS One. Article PubMed Central CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Kendrick IP, Harris RC, Kim HJ, Kim CK, Dang VH, Lam TQ, et al. The effects of 10 weeks of resistance training combined with beta-alanine supplementation on whole body strength, force production, muscular endurance and body composition.

Kendrick IP, Kim HJ, Harris RC, Kim CK, Dang VH, Lam TQ, et al. The effect of 4 weeks beta-alanine supplementation and isokinetic training on carnosine concentrations in type I and II human skeletal muscle fibres. Eur J Appl Physiol. Mannion AF, Jakeman PM, Willan PL.

Effects of isokinetic training of the knee extensors on high-intensity exercise performance and skeletal muscle buffering. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. Suzuki Y, Ito O, Takahashi H, Takamatsu K. The effect of sprint training on skeletal muscle carnosine in humans.

Int J Sport Health Sci. Article Google Scholar. Boldyrev AA, Aldini G, Derave W. Physiology and pathophysiology of carnosine. Physiol Rev. Derave W, Everaert I, Beeckman S, Baguet A.

Muscle carnosine metabolism and beta-alanine supplementation in relation to exercise and training. Sports Med. Article PubMed Google Scholar.

Everaert I, Mooyaart A, Baguet A, Zutinic A, Baelde H, Achten E, et al. Vegetarianism, female gender and increasing age, but not CNDP1 genotype, are associated with reduced muscle carnosine levels in humans. Mannion AF, Jakeman PM, Dunnett M, Harris RC, Willan PL.

Carnosine and anserine concentrations in the quadriceps femoris muscle of healthy humans. Abe H. Role of histidine-related compounds as intracellular proton buffering constituents in vertebrate muscle.

Biochemistry Mosc. CAS Google Scholar. Harris RC, Dunnett M, Greenhaff PL. Carnosine and taurine contents in individual fibres of human vastus lateralis muscle.

J Sports Sci. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of imidazole dipeptides, histidine, 1-methylhistidine and 3-methylhistidine in equine and camel muscle and individual muscle fibres. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl.

Stellingwerff T, Anwander H, Egger A, Buehler T, Kreis R, Decombaz J, et al. Effect of two beta-alanine dosing protocols on muscle carnosine synthesis and washout.

Derave W, Ozdemir MS, Harris RC, Pottier A, Reyngoudt H, Koppo K, et al. beta-Alanine supplementation augments muscle carnosine content and attenuates fatigue during repeated isokinetic contraction bouts in trained sprinters.

J Appl Physiol Bex T, Chung W, Baguet A, Stegen S, Stautemas J, Achten E, et al. Muscle carnosine loading by beta-alanine supplementation is more pronounced in trained vs.

untrained muscles. Stout JR, Cramer JT, Zoeller RF, Torok D, Costa P, Hoffman JR, et al. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on the onset of neuromuscular fatigue and ventilatory threshold in women.

Stegen S, Bex T, Vervaet C, Vanhee L, Achten E, Derave W. beta-Alanine dose for maintaining moderately elevated muscle carnosine levels.

Med Sci Sports Exerc. Stout JR, Graves BS, Smith AE, Hartman MJ, Cramer JT, Beck TW, et al. The effect of beta-alanine supplementation on neuromuscular fatigue in elderly 55—92 Years : a double-blind randomized study. J Int Soc Sports Nutr.

Article PubMed Central PubMed CAS Google Scholar. Sale C, Saunders B, Harris RC. Effect of beta-alanine supplementation on muscle carnosine concentrations and exercise performance. Jackson MC, Kucera CM, Lenney JF.

Purification and properties of human serum carnosinase. Clin Chim Acta. Gardner ML, Illingworth KM, Kelleher J, Wood D.

Intestinal absorption of the intact peptide carnosine in man, and comparison with intestinal permeability to lactulose. J Physiol. Severin SE, Kirzon MV, Kaftanova TM. Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR. CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Tanokura M, Tasumi M, Miyazawa T. Estimation of the effects of charged groups on the pKa value of the imidazole ring.

Suzuki Y, Nakao T, Maemura H, Sato M, Kamahara K, Morimatsu F, et al. Carnosine and anserine ingestion enhances contribution of nonbicarbonate buffering.

Davey CL. The significance of carnosine and anserine in striated skeletal muscle. Arch Biochem Biophys. Baguet A, Koppo K, Pottier A, Derave W. Beta-alanine supplementation reduces acidosis but not oxygen uptake response during high-intensity cycling exercise. Powers SK, Jackson MJ. Exercise-induced oxidative stress: cellular mechanisms and impact on muscle force production.

Bailey DM, Davies B, Young IS, Hullin DA, Seddon PS. A potential role for free radical-mediated skeletal muscle soreness in the pathophysiology of acute mountain sickness.

Aviat Space Environ Med. Venditti P, Di Meo S. Effect of training on antioxidant capacity, tissue damage, and endurance of adult male rats. Int J Sports Med. Klebanov GI, Teselkin Yu O, Babenkova IV, Lyubitsky OB, Rebrova O, Boldyrev AA, et al.

Effect of carnosine and its components on free-radical reactions. Membr Cell Biol. Kohen R, Yamamoto Y, Cundy KC, Ames BN.

Antioxidant activity of carnosine, homocarnosine, and anserine present in muscle and brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Hoffman J, Ratamess NA, Ross R, Kang J, Magrelli J, Neese K, et al. Beta-alanine and the hormonal response to exercise.

Harris RC, Jones GA, Kim HJ, Kim CK, Price KA, Wise JA. Changes in muscle carnosine of subjects with 4 weeks of supplementation with a controlled relase formulation of beta-alanine CarnoSyn , and for 6 weeks post Abstract. Google Scholar. Stellingwerff T, Decombaz J, Harris RC, Boesch C.

Optimizing human in vivo dosing and delivery of beta-alanine supplements for muscle carnosine synthesis. Stegen S, Blancquaert L, Everaert I, Bex T, Taes Y, Calders P, et al. Meal and beta-alanine coingestion enhances muscle carnosine loading.

Hobson RM, Saunders B, Ball G, Harris RC, Sale C. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a meta-analysis. Shinohara T, Harada M, Ogi K, Maruyama M, Fujii R, Tanaka H, et al. Identification of a G protein-coupled receptor specifically responsive to beta-alanine.

J Biol Chem.

nad supplementation Energy for sports performance muscle carnosine content and improves anaerobic exercise performane by enhancing intracellular buffering Beta-alanine and anaerobic performance. performancw ingestion in its traditional rapid-release formulation RR is associated with Hydration and its impact on health symptoms of paresthesia. A sustained-release formulation SR of β-alanine has been shown to circumvent paresthesia and extend the period of supply to muscle for carnosine synthesis. Thirty-nine recreationally active men and women were assigned to one of the three groups: SR, RR, or placebo PLA. Participants supplementing with SR and RR formulations increased muscle carnosine content by B McGonigle J Arnold M Lockard. Increasing perrormance power and decreasing overall Beta-alznine in anaerobic performance Blood sugar crash and stress sought-after physical abilities among Beta-alaniine athletic and fitness disciplines. Beta-alanine and anaerobic performance physical training, many athletes supplement with the popular pre-workout beta-alanine to further optimize performance. Beta-alanine binds with histidine to form carnosine and is stored within skeletal muscle. However, data is limited among supplementation phases of under two weeks. PURPOSE: To analyze the effects of one week of beta- alanine loading on anaerobic power during a Wingate cycle ergometer test WAnT. Beta-alanine and anaerobic performance

Author: Meztizragore

3 thoughts on “Beta-alanine and anaerobic performance

  1. Sie irren sich. Ich kann die Position verteidigen. Schreiben Sie mir in PM, wir werden besprechen.

Leave a comment

Yours email will be published. Important fields a marked *

Design by