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Cognitive boosting alertness

Cognitive boosting alertness

Chem Pharm Bull — Scientific data regarding Alertess used or misused as CEs are lacking. Use of cognitive enhancers: methylphenidate and analogs.

Cognitive boosting alertness -

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Can watching sports be bad for your health? Beyond the usual suspects for healthy resolutions. March 6, Just as there is no magic pill to prevent cognitive decline, no single almighty brain food can ensure a sharp brain as you age. Research shows that the best brain foods are the same ones that protect your heart and blood vessels, including the following: Green, leafy vegetables.

Leafy greens such as kale, spinach, collards, and broccoli are rich in brain-healthy nutrients like vitamin K, lutein, folate, and beta carotene. Research suggests these plant-based foods may help slow cognitive decline.

Fatty fish. Fatty fish are abundant sources of omega-3 fatty acids, healthy unsaturated fats that have been linked to lower blood levels of beta-amyloid—the protein that forms damaging clumps in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease. Try to eat fish at least twice a week, but choose varieties that are low in mercury, such as salmon, cod, canned light tuna, and pollack.

If you're not a fan of fish, ask your doctor about taking an omega-3 supplement, or choose terrestrial omega-3 sources such as flaxseeds, avocados, and walnuts.

Flavonoids, the natural plant pigments that give berries their brilliant hues, also help improve memory, research shows. A study done by researchers at Harvard's Brigham and Women's Hospital found that women who consumed two or more servings of strawberries and blueberries each week delayed memory decline by up to two-and-a-half years.

Since psychonauts experiment with novel substances in order to intentionally experience altered states of consciousness, it is to be expected that their interest also extends to the world of CEs. Among the CEs that they have been discussing online, there are mostly molecules that are known to have nootropic properties, are not illegal, and are likely to be easily available on the market such as racetam compounds, modafinil and its derivatives, methylphenidate and its derivatives and food supplements.

Our results showed that NPSfinder ® could be employed as an Early Warning System tool to help clinicians with keeping their knowledge up-to-date with the growing numbers and types of nootropics in the increasingly difficult-to-follow online market.

It is not surprising that the included sources i. NPSfinder ® , EDND, and EWA have identified mis-matching numbers and types of CEs, as they differ in their methodology and purposes of CE identification. In fact, the EDND was created in order to allow the European Union to rapidly detect, assess, and respond to health and social threats caused by NPS The UNODC EWA on NPS provides access to basic information on new psychoactive substances, including trend data, chemical details on individual substances, supporting documentation on laboratory analysis and legislative responses Specifically, the EDND and EWA focus on illegal drugs and do not look at websites that contain patented medications, while NPSfinder ® looks at websites whose contributors might have accessed sources containing patent medications.

The large number of molecules that are both identified by NPSfinder ® and described by Froestl et al. Among the CEs that have been subjectively identified by psychonauts as able to improve certain aspects of their cognition, there are molecules whose objective cognitive enhancing properties have not been established by research studies, such as the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors SSRIs , melatonin and many others.

The large number of unique molecules that were uniquely identified by NPSfinder ® can be explained with the innovative methodology that NPSfinder ® used for the early identification of all NPS, including CEs 41 — Flavonoids such as quercetin and naringin, as well as vitamins A, B, and D are also part of this group.

Perry and Howes 51 completed an informative review on medicinal plants in dementia, pointing out the potential cognitive benefits of a significant variety of plants and herbs. A recent systematic review has found that tyrosine and caffeine could enhance cognitive performance when healthy young adults are sleep-deprived in a military context The non-medical use of methylphenidate as a CE, which involves an attempt to improve memory, increase mental concentration, control anxiety, and stimulate motivation and creativity, is rising worldwide 38 , Research studies have often failed to demonstrate that SSRIs can have cognitive enhancing properties 54 , It was also suggested that any cognitive benefits of SSRIs were likely to be secondary to their effect on mood or behavioral disturbances.

Interestingly, both fluoxetine and methylphenidate potentiate gene regulation in the striatum, and their combination seems to mimic cocaine effects, with related increased risk for substance use disorder It is possible that many prescribed drugs are currently being misused by the general public but not picked up by the regulatory bodies because the vast majority of them are not classified as illegal.

It is important that more studies and cross-sectional surveys are conducted as well as that the current pharmacovigilance systems focus on determining current patterns and quantifying current usage of these drugs by healthy people. Racetam compounds, which are classically one of the major CE family 58 , are identified by NPSfinder ® and listed within the IPEDs sub-group Table 4.

Piracetam enhances cognitive function without causing sedation or stimulation 3. This drug is also being used in clinical practice for the treatment of several diseases 59 — 62 although its mechanism of action remains not fully understood.

NPSfinder ® identified aniracetam, coluracetam, fasoracetam, nefiracetam, oxiracetam, phenylpiracetam, piracetam, and pramiracetam. For example, recent studies failed in showing that aniracetam improves working memory in pigeons 63 , learning and memory in rats 64 , or cognitive and affective behavior in mice Moreover, nefiracetam did not prove to be more efficacious than placebo in ameliorating apathy in stroke 66 despite some positive pre-clinical results 67 , There are no available studies on coluracetam, fasoracetam , and phenylpiracetam.

Among the psychostimulant CEs are described many derivatives of methylphenidate and modafinil Table 5. These have been listed in this group when not licensed as prescribed drugs. Methylphenidate is a prescription drug with medical restrictions in several countries, therefore, many illegal analogues have emerged on the internet and darknet drug markets during the last few years The derivatives of methylphenidate that have been identified by NPSfinder ® include: 3,4-dichloromethylphenidate, 4-fluoromethylphenidate, 4-methylmethylphenidate, dexmethylphenidate, ethylphenidate, methylmorphenate , and methylnaphthidate.

No research studies are available regarding the misuse of these molecules by healthy subjects in order to ameliorate their cognitive function Table 6. The phenethylamines-related compounds that have been identified by NPSfinder ® are listed in Table 7.

These are stimulant, entactogenic, and hallucinogenic substances that share similar chemical structures with amphetamine, catecholamines, synthetic cathinones, and other molecules Phenethylamines are known to enhance mood and empathy in healthy subjects.

Substituted phenethylamines also include substituted amphetamines, which have been used as CEs to promote learning and memory but can ultimately lead to addiction Dolder et al.

To the best of our knowledge, there are no research studies or case reports focusing on the misuse of specific phenethylamines as CEs by healthy subjects.

GABAergic drugs are chemicals that produce their effects via interactions with the GABA system, such as by stimulating or blocking neurotransmission f-phenibut , which is closely related to phenibut , is a central nervous system depressant 72 ; tolibut is a GABA analog that was developed in Russia 77 , similarly to picamilon , which is formed by a synthetic combination of niacin and γ -aminobutyric acid GABA.

Picamilon was developed in the Soviet Union in 78 and further studied in both Russia 79 and Japan 80 as a prodrug of GABA. Among Cannabimimetic drugs there are the synthetic cannabimimetics that are designer drugs that target the same receptors to which cannabinoids in cannabis plants, tetrahydrocannabinol THC and cannabidiol CBD bind 81 , dexanabinol , drinabant , Dronabinol , JZL , rimonabant , and URB were the six CEs belonging to this group that were identified by the NPSfinder ® Table 9.

The use of cannabimimetics as CEs seems counter-intuitive as both pre-clinical and human studies have found a link between consumption of cannabinoids and long-term deficits of cognitive functions, especially high-order cognitive functions 83 — However, recent pre-clinical studies have found that deltaTHC can improve cognitive performances in rats 89 and mice This is a tryptamine derivative closely related to both the serotonin and melatonin neurotransmitters To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies, surveys, or case reports that identified 5-MT as a drug used by healthy people in order to improve their cognitive abilities.

Jansen et al. Fipexide also known as attentil and vigilor Table 11 is the only substitute piperazine that has been identified by NPSfinder ® as a CE. This was initially developed in Italy in 94 and used as a CE in Italy and France for the treatment of dementia Fipexide is no longer in use due to the occurrence of rare side-effects 96 , Ethical issues raised by cognitive enhancement have been debated for over a decade 98 , and many experts have identified multiple ethical concerns including risks to mental and health safety On the other hand, it is of concern that the safety and efficacy of these drugs in healthy individuals in the long-term are still unclear.

While some CEs have been studied and research data on their mechanism of action and potential benefit are available, the action, the beneficial effects, and the potential side-effects of the majority of them have yet to be fully described and understood.

Some of these drugs can cause dependence and have a significant range of harmful effects; they can be particularly dangerous to young people as their brains are not fully developed. Studies producing null results and some evidence of task-specific impairments should be also noted The limited evidence of effectiveness as well as the potential side-effects should be cautiously considered by relevant legislative and regulatory bodies.

In , the US Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues released a report on CE, reporting up-to-date findings and providing recommendations for clinicians The Australian Alcohol and Drug Foundation has recently raised doubts about the actual cognitive benefits of most CEs, indicating that scientific studies showed only little to no benefits for cognitive enhancement in healthy individuals, while the associated side-effects do pose significant risks to health and safety of the general public NPSfinder ® could also be an important tool for analytical toxicologists to focus their efforts on the detection of the most recently misused substances , An official, up-to-date, comprehensive list of CEs is not currently available in the literature.

The Early Warning Systems fail in the early detection of these substances as they are mostly legal products such as food supplements or prescribed medication, which are misused by healthy individuals to improve their cognitive abilities.

We based our classification on the one described by Schifano et al. We noted that another type of classification, such as the one described by Froestl et al.

In fact, many CEs do not have a fully understood mechanism of action, which makes it difficult to link them to a specific category; other CEs have multiple mechanisms of actions i. Furthermore, it is important to note that a limited number of languages were used for the screening of molecules on the web, and although many substances were first identified in seizures in Asia, only European languages are used.

For all these reasons, forming a comprehensive and definite classification of CEs remains a complex challenge. CEs are a wide and diverse group of molecules, constantly growing in terms of numbers as well as availability among the general public and especially via online platforms.

CEs differ for pharmacological activity, time, and mode of action, targeted cognitive domain, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, as well as possible short- and long-term side-effects. The popularity of chemicals that are potentially able to augment brain functions is not surprising in a society which constantly demands for increasingly high cognitive performances.

For the current official Early Warning Systems, it is challenging to identify and monitor the use of CEs as they are often sold as legal food supplements or as prescribed medication for a number of medical conditions. For this reason, NPSfinder ® can be considered as a helpful systematic tool which could update clinicians with the growing numbers and types of nootropics in the increasingly difficult-to-follow internet world.

Previously, Arillotta and colleagues 43 have identified novel opioids which were not listed in either international or European NPS databases, such as EMCDDA or UNODC.

This information is useful to stakeholders such as enforcement agents, emergency department, scientific community, prevention program setters, and other regulatory agencies.

The same applies to CEs; in particular, the early identification of substances that are misused as CEs and the discovery of novel CEs that were never reported or identified before are crucial to raise the awareness of regulatory bodies.

The identification of a drug is key to the treatment of its potential physical and psychiatric effects; if the drug is novel, its description may shed some light on its pharmacokinetics and toxicodynamics, which would in turn inform treatment decision-making in clinical settings.

The early identification and better understanding of the distribution and effects of CEs could promote both more effective prevention and harm reduction measures in clinical settings, including emergency departments, mental health and general practice clinics.

The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation. FS and AV have conceived the idea of the manuscript and have coordinated the whole project.

FN, CZ, DA, and LG have actually carried out the process of both data collection and systematization. FN performed the literature searching, the analysis of data and drafted the manuscript. FS, JC, and AG supervised the manuscript and contributed to the final version of the manuscript.

FS approved the final content of the manuscript. JC provided data from the EMCDDA and UNODC databases for the purposes of this research. FS, JC, and AG have provided relevant epidemiological data and have contributed as well to the drafting and checking of the paper itself.

None of the authors of this paper was directly involved with the website development. AV has conceived the idea of a new early detention software for NPS, which was developed by the professionals at Damicom srl, a small enterprise from Rome Italy.

FS and AV have coordinated the testing of the web crawler. FN, CZ, and DA have suggested minor changes to the software which have made the screening process more precise and efficient. The remaining authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

The reviewer, SC, declared a shared affiliation, though no collaboration, with several of the authors, FN, FS, JMC, AG, DA, CZ, and AV to the handling editor. The authors are grateful to Damicom srl, a small enterprise from Rome Italy , whose professionals have developed the NPSfinder ® web crawler and so generously have allowed here the testing of its potential.

The authors are also grateful to the EMCDDA and UNODC for being able to use their databases for the purposes of this research. ADHD, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; CEs, cognitive enhancers; EDND, European Database on New Drugs; EMCDDA, European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction; EWA, Early Warning Advisory; GABA, gamma-aminobutyric acid; IPEDs, imaging and performance enhancing drugs; MPH, methylphenidate; NPS, novel psychoactive substances; SSRIs, Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors; UNODC, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.

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Alertndss molekuul. be via Shutterstock. Now, a new Pre-competition meal ideas review, published online in the peer-reviewed Alertjess European Neuropsychopharmacology shows that modafinil does Energy education and awareness confer significant cognitive benefits in this Cognitivw, at least on a particular subset of tasks. Dr Ruairidh Battleday and Dr Anna-Katharine Brem from the University of Oxford and Harvard Medical School evaluated all research papers on cognitive enhancement with modafinil from January to December They found 24 studies dealing with different benefits associated with taking modafinil, including planning and decision making, flexibility, learning and memory, and creativity. Unsurprisingly, they found that the performance-enhancing capacity of modafinil varied according to the task. Boostiny include products Energy education and awareness think are alertnrss for our readers. If you buy Ginger links on this page, we may earn a small bosoting. Healthline only shows you brands and products that we stand behind. Brain-boosting vitamins and supplements, including fish oil and rhodiola rosea, may help support healthy brain function. The specific benefits, such as focus and memory, may vary. Nootropics are natural supplements or drugs that have a beneficial effect on brain function in healthy people. Cognitive boosting alertness

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