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Insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease

Insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease

Cwrdiovascular Qin PubMed Google Scholar Moore, K. Fifth, the findings of this study were based on a middle-aged and elderly Chinese population.

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Insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease -

Disruptions in myocardial fuel metabolism and bioenergetics contribute to cardiovascular disease as the adult heart requires high energy for contractile function [ ]. In this situation, the heart uses alternative pathways such as ketone bodies as fuel for oxidative ATP production [ ].

However, there is still controversy around whether this fuel shift is adaptive or maladaptive. The ketogenic diet effect can be mediated by suppressing longevity-related insulin signaling and mTOR pathway, and activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α PPARα , the master regulator that switches on genes involved in ketogenesis [ ].

Several reports suggest that ketogenic diet may be associated with a decreased incidence of risk factors of cardiovascular disease such obesity, diabetes, arterial blood pressure and cholesterol levels, but these effects are usually limited in time [ ].

However other reports indicated that cardiac risk factor reductions corresponded with weight loss regardless of a type of diet used [ ]. Excessive production of ROS leads to protein, DNA, and membrane damage.

In addition, ROS exerts deleterious effects on the endoplasmic reticulum. This also contributes to diabetic cardiomyopathy pathogenesis [ , ]. Insulin essentially provides an integrated set of signals allowing the balance between nutrient demand and availability. Impaired nutrition contributes to hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance causing hyperglycemia.

This condition alters cellular metabolism and intracellular signaling that negatively impact cells. In the cardiomyocyte, this damage can be summarized into three actions: 1 alteration in insulin signaling. All these effects induce cellular events including: 1 gene expression modifications, 2 hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, 3 activation of oxidative stress and inflammatory response, 4 endothelial dysfunction, and 5 ectopic lipid accumulation, which, favored by obesity, perpetuates the metabolic deregulation.

Overall, insulin resistance contributes to generate CVD via two independent pathways: 1 atheroma plaque formation and 2 ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic abnormality.

Both effects lead to heart failure. Future research is needed to understand the precise mechanism between insulin resistance and its progression to heart failure with a focus on new therapy development.

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Elevated fasting plasma insulin in a general aged population: An innocent companion of cardiovascular diseases.

Cardiovascular Diabetology Cruelty-free cosmetics 17Article number: Cite this article. Metrics details. Disfase many Insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular Insukin CVD has been Insulun leading cause of death around the world. Often associated with CVD are comorbidities such as obesity, abnormal lipid profiles and insulin resistance. Insulin is a key hormone that functions as a regulator of cellular metabolism in many tissues in the human body. Insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease

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